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Regulatory Europeanization, national autonomy and regulatory effectiveness: Marketing authorization for pharmaceuticals

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  • Feick, Jürgen
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    Abstract

    The EC harmonized market entry regulation for pharmaceuticals from the early sixties on, but it achieved neither its goal of uniform national regulatory decisions nor that of automatic mutual recognition. Subsequent attempts to Europeanize the procedures themselves resulted in two alternatives in 1995: a Centralized Procedure for innovative pharmaceutical products implemented at the EU level, and a Decentralized Procedure which tries to assure mutual recognition. First, the paper analyzes the distinctive modes of Europeanization employed in these regulatory alternatives, examining both their impact on the effectiveness of European governing and the balance they strike between European interventionism, national participation and national autonomy. Second, it tries to assess whether Europeanization furthers the goals of pharmaceutical market entry policy as defined in European regulations - public health protection, creation of a single market and the reduction of regulatory costs to industry. There is little evidence that the public's health is less well protected when regulation is Europeanized. Only the Centralized Procedure contributes significantly to the goal of establishing a single market. Regulatory costs in terms of approval time did go down especially for pharmaceutical firms using the Centralized Procedure, mainly because of efficiency-enhancing legal provisions and institutionally induced regulatory competition between national authorities. -- Seit Anfang der sechziger Jahre hat die EG das Zulassungsrecht für Arzneimittel harmonisiert, ohne damit das Ziel uniformer nationaler Zulassungsentscheidungen bzw. die gegenseitige Anerkennung derselben zu erreichen. In einer zweiten Stufe kam es zu Versuchen, die Verfahren selbst zu europäisieren, was 1995 in die Einführung von zwei europäischen Zulassungsverfahren mündete – eines zentralisierten mit europäischer Implementationsstruktur für innovative Medikamente und eines dezentralen, das die gegenseitige Anerkennung nationaler Entscheidungen prozedural durchsetzen soll. In diesem Papier werden zunächst die in diesen Verfahren verwirklichten Formvarianten regulativer Europäisierung und das je charakteristische Verhältnis zwischen europäischer Intervention, nationaler Partizipation und nationaler Autonomie analysiert sowie nach der Effektivität europäischen Regierens gefragt. In einem weiteren Schritt wird abzuschätzen versucht, wie sich diese Europäisierungsstrategien auf die in der europäischen Regulierung verankerten Ziele des öffentlichen Gesundheitsschutzes, der Binnenmarktetablierung und der Industrieförderung auswirken. Es spricht wenig dafür, dass die Europäisierung des Zulassungsverfahrens den Gesundheitsschutz systematisch vernachlässigt. Zur Verwirklichung des Binnenmarkts bei Arzneimitteln trägt bislang eindeutig nur das zentralisierte Verfahren bei. Schließlich: Insbesondere durch rechtliche Vorgaben und einen institutionell induzierten regulativen Wettbewerb zwischen nationalen Behörden wurden die regulativen Kosten – gemessen in Zulassungszeiten – speziell für die Unternehmen reduziert, die das zentralisierte Verfahren nutzen können.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by Max Planck Institute for the Study of Societies in its series MPIfG Discussion Paper with number 02/6.

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    Date of creation: 2002
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    Handle: RePEc:zbw:mpifgd:p0027

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