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One best way oder Varietät? Strategischer und organisatorischer Wandel von Großunternehmen im Prozess der Internationalisierung

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  • Beyer, Jürgen
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    Abstract

    Bestimmte Organisationsmuster und strategische Orientierungen von Unternehmen werden unter den neuen Rahmenbedingungen einer globalisierten Weltökonomie als nicht mehr zeitgemäß angesehen. Entwickelt sich im Prozess der Internationalisierung demnach ein einheitlicher Unternehmenstypus, der sich unter den neuen Kontextbedingungen als besonders geeignet herausstellt und verbreitet? Die Analyse der strategischen und organisatorischen Entwicklung deutscher Großunternehmen im Zeitraum seit 1986 spricht gegen diese Annahme. Es zeigt sich zwar, dass sich das strategische Optionsfeld durch die weit gehende Verdrängung einer auf den nationalen Raum begrenzten Strategie und der exportorientierten Internationalisierungsvariante verengt hat. Da aber gleichzeitig der ehemals gegebene Zusammenhang zwischen Strategie und Struktur geschwunden ist, kann auf organisatorischer Ebene keine Konvergenz festgestellt werden. Die Internationalisierung der Unternehmen begünstigt demnach weder die Ausbildung bestimmter formaler Organisationsstrukturen (wie z.B. die Matrixorganisation) noch befördert sie hinsichtlich der Koordinierung der Betriebseinheiten einheitlich eine De- oder Re-Zentralisierung der Unternehmen. -- Certain types of organization and developmental strategies found in companies today are frequently considered to be outdated in the face of a globalized economy. Is the process of internationalization leading to one particular type of company that is best able to adapt to a new economic and societal context? An analysis of the strategic and organizational development of large German firms since 1986 does not support this assumption. Although it can be demonstrated that purely national and export-oriented strategies are no longer in the option set of most companies, a trend toward the convergence of organizational structures cannot be observed. The process of internationalization weakens the strategy-structure relation and therefore leads neither consistently to particular organizational designs (such as the matrix organization) nor to decentralized or recentralized forms of coordination.

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    Paper provided by Max Planck Institute for the Study of Societies in its series MPIfG Discussion Paper with number 01/2.

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    Date of creation: 2001
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    Handle: RePEc:zbw:mpifgd:012

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    1. John Dunning, 1981. "Explaining the international direct investment position of countries: Towards a dynamic or developmental approach," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer, vol. 117(1), pages 30-64, March.
    2. Thomas W Malnight, 1996. "The Transition from Decentralized to Network-Based MNC Structures: An Evolutionary Perspective," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 27(1), pages 43-65, March.
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    6. repec:wop:humbsf:1996-65 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. Naschold, Frieder & Jürgens, Ulrich & Lippert, Inge & Renneke, Leo, 1999. "Vom chandlerianischen Unternehmensmodell zum Wintelismus: Ausgangsüberlegungen für ein Projektvorhaben über veränderte Governanceformen in der internationalen InfoCom und Automobilindustrie," Discussion Papers, Research Unit: Regulation of Work FS II 99-204, Social Science Research Center Berlin (WZB).
    8. Gunnar Hedlund, 1984. "Organization in-Between: The Evolution of the Mother-Daughter Structure of Managing Foreign Subsidiaries in Swedish MNCS," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 15(2), pages 109-123, June.
    9. Vernon, Raymond, 1979. "The Product Cycle Hypothesis in a New International Environment," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 41(4), pages 255-67, November.
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