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Auswirkungen der Biogaserzeugung auf die Landwirtschaft


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  • Gömann, Horst
  • de Witte, Thomas
  • Peter, Günter
  • Tietz, Andreas
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    In der Studie wurden die Auswirkungen der rasanten, regional sehr unterschiedlichen Ausdeh-nung der Biogaserzeugung und des dafür erforderlichen Energiepflanzenanbaus auf die innersektoralen Wechselwirkungen, die Boden- und Pachtmärkte sowie auf die Ernährungs- und Futtermittelindustrie untersucht und regionale Aspekte herausgearbeitet. Es konnte gezeigt werden, dass der Einfluss der Agrarpreise auf die Wirtschaftlichkeit von Biogasanlagen, die vorrangig mit nachwachsenden Rohstoffen betrieben werden, entscheidender ist als die Novellierung des Erneuerbare-Energien-Gesetz (EEG) von 2012. Die Wirtschaftlichkeitsschwelle wird bei Getreidepreisen von mehr als 200 Euro/t kaum erreicht, so dass die derzeitige Stagnation des Ausbaus von Biogasanlagen in erster Linie auf die momentan hohen Agrarpreise zurückzuführen ist. Angesichts der zunehmenden Konkurrenz um Fläche zur Futter- bzw. Substratproduktion sowie zur Ausbringung zusätzlicher Nährstoffe in Gärresten lässt sich vor allem in Milch- und Veredlungsregionen ein deutlicher Anstieg der Pachtpreise nachweisen. Für die Ernährungs- und Futtermittelindustrie kann aus theoretischer Sicht von Auswirkungen der gestiegenen Biogaserzeugung ausgegangen werden. Allerdings lassen sich diese nur schwer quantifizieren und kaum validieren. -- In this study, the impact of the rapid, regionally very different development of biogas production and the necessary energy plant crops will be considered in terms of interactions within the agricultural sector, land and leasing markets, as well as the food and feedstuff industries, and regional aspects will be defined. It could be shown that the influence of agricultural price development on the economic viability of biogas facilities, which are primarily operated with renewable resources, is more decisive than the revised Renewable Energy Law (EEG) of 2012. The economic threshold is hardly attained with a grain price of more than 200 Euro/ton, so that the momentary stagnation in the building of biogas facilities can primarily be traced back to the currently high agricultural prices. In light of the increasing competition for land to grow feed or substrate, as well as for distributing additional nutrients in fermentation residues, a serious increase in leasing prices can be seen above all in milk and breeding regions. From a theoretical perspective, an impact of the increased biogas production can be assumed for the food and feedstuff industries. However these can only be quantified with difficulty and can hardly be validated.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by Johann Heinrich von Thünen Institute, Federal Research Institute for Rural Areas, Forestry and Fisheries in its series Thünen Reports with number 10.

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    Date of creation: 2013
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    Handle: RePEc:zbw:jhtire:10

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    Keywords: Erneuerbares-Energien-Gesetz; Biogaserzeugung; Landnutzungsänderungen; Agrarsektor; Boden- und Pachtmärkte; Renewable Energy Law; biogas production; land use change; agricultural sector; land and leasing markets;

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