The cost of being landlocked : logistics costs and supply chain reliability
AbstractA large proportion of the least developed countries are landlocked and their access to world markets depends on the availability of a trade corridor and transit systems. Based on empirical evidence from World Bank projects and assessments in Africa, Central Asia, and elsewhere, this paper proposes a microeconomic quantitative description of logistics costs. The paper theoretically and empirically highlights that landlocked economies are primarily affected not only by a high cost of freight services but also by the high degree of unpredictability in transportation time. The main sources of costs are not only physical constraints but widespread rent activities and severe flaws in the implementation of the transit systems, which prevent the emergence of reliable logistics services. The business and donor community should push toward implementation of comprehensive facilitation strategies, primarily at the national level, and the design of robust and resilient transport and transit regimes. A better understanding of the political economy of transit and a review of the implementation successes and failures in this area are needed.
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Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by The World Bank in its series Policy Research Working Paper Series with number 4258.
Date of creation: 01 Jun 2007
Date of revision:
Transport Economics Policy&Planning; Transport and Trade Logistics; Common Carriers Industry; Economic Theory&Research; Rural Roads&Transport;
Other versions of this item:
- Jean-François Arvis & Gaël Raballand & Jean-François Marteau, 2010. "The Cost of Being Landlocked : Logistics Costs and Supply Chain Reliability," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 2489, March.
- NEP-AFR-2007-06-30 (Africa)
- NEP-ALL-2007-06-30 (All new papers)
- NEP-DEV-2007-06-30 (Development)
- NEP-INT-2007-06-30 (International Trade)
- NEP-SEA-2007-06-30 (South East Asia)
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