Product Downsizing and Hidden Price Increases: Evidence from Japan's Deflationary Period
AbstractConsumer price inflation in Japan has been below zero since the mid-1990s. Given this, it is difficult for firms to raise product prices in response to an increase in marginal costs. One pricing strategy firms have taken in this situation is to reduce the size or the weight of a product while leaving the price more or less unchanged, thereby raising the effective price. In this paper, we empirically examine the extent to which product downsizing occurred in Japan as well as the effects of product downsizing on prices and quantities sold. Using scanner data on prices and quantities for all products sold at about 200 supermarkets over the last ten years, we find that about one third of product replacements that occurred in our sample period were accompanied by a size/weight reduction. The number of product replacements with downsizing has been particularly high since 2007. We also find that prices, on average, did not change much at the time of product replacement, even if a product replacement was accompanied by product downsizing, resulting in an effective price increase. However, comparing the magnitudes of product downsizings, our results indicate that prices declined more for product replacements that involved a larger decline in size or weight. Finally, we show that the quantities sold decline with product downsizing, and that the responsiveness of quantity purchased to size/weight changes is almost the same as the price elasticity, indicating that consumers are as sensitive to size/weight changes as they are to price changes. This implies that quality adjustments based on per-unit prices, which are widely used by statistical agencies in countries around the world, may be an appropriate way to deal with product downsizing.
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Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by University of Tokyo, Graduate School of Economics in its series UTokyo Price Project Working Paper Series with number 008.
Length: 31 pages
Date of creation: Apr 2013
Date of revision: Jun 2013
Contact details of provider:
Postal: University of Tokyo 702 Faculty of Economics, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-0033, Japan
Web page: http://www.e.u-tokyo.ac.jp/
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consumer price index; scanner data; product downsizing; quality adjustment; deflation;
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2014-01-17 (All new papers)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Snir, Avichai & Levy, Daniel, 2011.
"Shrinking Goods and Sticky Prices: Theory and Evidence,"
29565, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Avichai Snir & Daniel Levy, 2011. "Shrinking Goods and Sticky Prices: Theory and Evidence," Emory Economics, Department of Economics, Emory University (Atlanta) 1104, Department of Economics, Emory University (Atlanta).
- Avichai Snir & Daniel Levy, 2011. "Shrinking Goods and Sticky Prices: Theory and Evidence," Working Papers 2011-03, Bar-Ilan University, Department of Economics.
- Avichai Snir & Daniel Levy, 2011. "Shrinking Goods and Sticky Prices: Theory and Evidence," Working Paper Series, The Rimini Centre for Economic Analysis 17_11, The Rimini Centre for Economic Analysis.
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