A Nonlinear Analysis of CO2-Income Relation for Advanced Countries
AbstractWe study long run carbon emissions - income relationships for advanced countries grouped in policy relevant groups - North America and Oceania, South Europe, North Europe. By relying on recent advances on Generalized Additive Models and adopting interaction models, we handle simultaneously three main econometric issues, named here as functional form bias, heterogeneity bias and omitted time related factors bias, which have been proved to be relevant but have been addressed separately in previous papers. We consider a model which includes both country-specifi c nonparametric time eff ects and country-speci c nonparametric income eff ects. We fi nd that country-speci c time related factors weight more than income in driving the northern EU Environmental Kuznets Curves, that cross country heterogeneity is high and that only two countries - Finland and Sweden - show bell shapes for both income and time relationships to CO2. Overall, the countries di ffer more on their carbon-time relation than on the carbon-income relation which is in almost all cases monotonic positive. The former may represent idiosyncratic innovation, energy and policy features of the countries under study.
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Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by University of Ferrara, Department of Economics in its series Working Papers with number 2013072.
Length: 31 pages
Date of creation: 14 Feb 2013
Date of revision:
Semi parametric models; GAM; interaction models; environmental Kuznets curve;
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- C14 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General - - - Semiparametric and Nonparametric Methods: General
- C23 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Models with Panel Data; Spatio-temporal Models
- Q53 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Air Pollution; Water Pollution; Noise; Hazardous Waste; Solid Waste; Recycling
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2013-03-30 (All new papers)
- NEP-ENE-2013-03-30 (Energy Economics)
- NEP-ENV-2013-03-30 (Environmental Economics)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Ordás Criado, Carlos & Valente, Simone & Stengos, Thanasis, 2009.
"Growth and the pollution convergence hypothesis: A nonparametric approach,"
MPRA Paper, University Library of Munich, Germany
17492, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Carlos Ordás Criado & Simone Valente & Thanasis Stengos, 2009. "Growth and the pollution convergence hypothesis: a nonparametric approach," CEPE Working paper series, CEPE Center for Energy Policy and Economics, ETH Zurich 09-66, CEPE Center for Energy Policy and Economics, ETH Zurich.
- C. Ordás Criado & S. Valente & T. Stengos, 2009. "Growth and the pollution convergence hypothesis: a nonparametric approach," Working Papers, University of Guelph, Department of Economics and Finance 0908, University of Guelph, Department of Economics and Finance.
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