Does housing capital contribute to inequality? A comment on Thomas Piketty’s Capital in the 21st Century
AbstractIn his book, Capital in the 21st Century,Thomas Piketty highlights the risk of an explosion of wealth inequality because capital is accumulating faster than income in several countries including the US and European countries such as France. Our work challenges the conclusions of the author in three steps. First, the author’s result is based on the rise of only one of the components of capital, namely housing capital,and due to housing prices. In fact, housing prices have risen faster than rent and income in many countries.It is worth noting that “productive” capital, excluding housing, has only risen weakly relative to income over the last few decades. Over the longer run, the “productive” capital/income ratio has not increased at all. Second, rent, not housing prices, should matter for the dynamics of wealth inequality, because rent represents both the actual income of housing capital for landlords and the dwelling costs saved by “owner-occupiers” (people living in their own houses). Logically, to properly measure capital, the value of housing capital must be corrected by measuring it on actual rental price, and not housing prices. Third, when we apply this change, we find that the capital/income ratio is actually stable or only mildly higher in the countries analyzed (France, the US, the UK, and Canada) except for Germany where it rose. These conclusions are exactly opposite to those found by Thomas Piketty. However, this does not mean that housing prices do not contribute to other forms of inequality. When housing prices rise, owners of the housing capital hold a higher value that can be transformed into consumption. It is also more difficult for young adults to become homeowners. Housing incomes of owners however do not necessarily increase which casts serious doubt on Piketty’s conclusion of a potential explosive dynamics of inequality based on these trends.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Sciences Po Departement of Economics in its series Sciences Po Economics Discussion Papers with number 2014-07.
Date of creation: Apr 2014
Date of revision:
Other versions of this item:
- Odran Bonnet & Pierre-Henri Bono & Guillaume Chapelle & Etienne Wasmer, 2014. "Does housing capital contribute to inequality? A comment on Thomas Piketty’s Capital in the 21st Century," Sciences Po publications 2014-07, Sciences Po.
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- David A. Wise, 1990. "Issues in the Economics of Aging," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number wise90-1.
- Buiter, Willem H., 2010.
"Housing wealth isn't wealth,"
Economics - The Open-Access, Open-Assessment E-Journal,
Kiel Institute for the World Economy, vol. 4(22), pages 1-29.
- Willem H. Buiter, 2008. "Housing Wealth Isn't Wealth," NBER Working Papers 14204, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Buiter, Willem H, 2008. "Housing Wealth isn't Wealth," CEPR Discussion Papers 6920, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Buiter, Willem H., 2009. "Housing wealth isn't wealth," Economics Discussion Papers 2009-56, Kiel Institute for the World Economy.
- Maria Concetta Chiuri & Tullio Jappelli, 2006.
"Do the elderly reduce housing equity? An international comparison,"
CSEF Working Papers
158, Centre for Studies in Economics and Finance (CSEF), University of Naples, Italy.
- Maria Chiuri & Tullio Jappelli, 2010. "Do the elderly reduce housing equity? An international comparison," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 23(2), pages 643-663, March.
- Chiuri, Maria Concetta & Jappelli, Tullio, 2008. "Do the elderly reduce housing equity? An international comparison," CFS Working Paper Series 2008/20, Center for Financial Studies (CFS).
- Dan Andrews & Aida Caldera Sánchez, 2011. "The Evolution of Homeownership Rates in Selected OECD Countries: Demographic and Public Policy Influences," OECD Journal: Economic Studies, OECD Publishing, vol. 2011(1), pages 1-37.
- Paul Gomme & Peter Rupert, 2004. "Measuring labor’s share of income," Policy Discussion Papers, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland, issue Nov.
Blog mentionsAs found by EconAcademics.org, the blog aggregator for Economics research:
- Thomas PIketty's Housing Problem
by Vero de Rugy in The Corner on 2014-05-07 18:17:50
- Housing capital and Pikettyâs analysis
by ? in VoxEU.org on 2014-06-30 01:00:00
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Sciences Po Departement of Economics Series Handler).
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.