Key factors and barriers to the adoption of cold ironing in europe
AbstractThe first cases of successful implementation of cold ironing can be found in Alaska about twenty years ago. In that case, the energy cost was lower than in Europe where cold ironing has been developed only in the latest years at few ports. The present paper investigates the innovative process of cold ironing at European level. Firstly, its recent development in Europe is documented as well as the main concern of its corresponding legislation. Then, the adoption of this initiative by the “green ports” concept is discussed. Secondly, the technical barriers, such as lack of standardization of electricity parameters are mentioned. And given that port electrical infrastructure needed onshore represents a huge investment that not all ports are financially able to do, the financial problematic is treated explicitly taking into account the cost of energy at ports (directly provided by electric centrals or converted) against the energy cost onboard. Finally, conclusions are drawn covering the main barriers confronted by this technology and the future premises of cold ironing at European ports considering the social and environmental benefits in terms of air and noise pollution.
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Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by SIET Società Italiana di Economia dei Trasporti e della Logistica in its series Working Papers with number 1115.
Length: 11 pages
Date of creation: 2011
Date of revision: 2011
cold ironing; energy cost; technology barrier; European ports; environmenta;
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2012-02-01 (All new papers)
- NEP-ENE-2012-02-01 (Energy Economics)
- NEP-EUR-2012-02-01 (Microeconomic European Issues)
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