The Impact of Switching Costs on Vendor Financing
AbstractEmpirical studies point to trade credit as an important continuing source of short term financing for small and medium-sized enterprises. We show that vendor financing appears in equilibrium as the result of repeated trade interactions between a buyer and a supplier when changing supplier is costly. The supplier is then able to extract a periodic rent from the buyer. The presence of switching costs is not, however, detrimental to the buyer because competition between suppliers for this rent forces them to offer a rebate before the relationship is initiated. This sequence of a rebate followed by high prices is similar to a long term financing structure. The role of switching costs is similar to that of a precommitment device that allows the buyer to borrow a limited amount of capital from the supplier in the first period and to roll over the debt until the end of the relationship. In the case of small business owners who have difficulty accessing financial markets, our model suggests that switching costs allows them to smooth their dividend income, albeit inefficiently, by using vendor financing.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Departement d'Economique de la Faculte d'administration à l'Universite de Sherbrooke in its series Cahiers de recherche with number 07-18.
Length: 18 pages
Date of creation: 2007
Date of revision:
Trade credit; financing of the firm; commitment; self-enforcing contracts.;
Other versions of this item:
- D92 - Microeconomics - - Intertemporal Choice - - - Intertemporal Firm Choice, Investment, Capacity, and Financing
- D86 - Microeconomics - - Information, Knowledge, and Uncertainty - - - Economics of Contract Law
- C73 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Game Theory and Bargaining Theory - - - Stochastic and Dynamic Games; Evolutionary Games
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2007-09-09 (All new papers)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Mitchell A. Petersen & Raghuram G. Rajan, 1996.
"Trade Credit: Theories and Evidence,"
NBER Working Papers
5602, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Campbell, Tim S. & Kracaw, William A., 1987. "Optimal Managerial Incentive Contracts and the Value of Corporate Insurance," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 22(03), pages 315-328, September.
- DeMarzo, Peter M & Duffie, Darrell, 1995. "Corporate Incentives for Hedging and Hedge Accounting," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 8(3), pages 743-71.
- John R. Graham & Clifford W. Smith, 1999. "Tax Incentives to Hedge," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 54(6), pages 2241-2262, December.
- Mike Burkart & Tore Ellingsen, 2004. "In-Kind Finance: A Theory of Trade Credit," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 94(3), pages 569-590, June.
- Smith, Janet Kiholm, 1987. " Trade Credit and Informational Asymmetry," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 42(4), pages 863-72, September.
- Jain, Neelam, 2001. "Monitoring costs and trade credit," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 41(1), pages 89-110.
- Raghuram G. Rajan & Luigi Zingales, 1994.
"What Do We Know About Capital Structure? Some Evidence from International Data,"
NBER Working Papers
4875, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Rajan, Raghuram G & Zingales, Luigi, 1995. " What Do We Know about Capital Structure? Some Evidence from International Data," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 50(5), pages 1421-60, December.
- Stanley D. Longhofer & Joao A.C. Santos, 2003. "The Paradox of Priority," Financial Management, Financial Management Association, vol. 32(1), Spring.
- Gregory E. Elliehausen & John D. Wolken, 1993. "The demand for trade credit: an investigation of motives for trade credit use by small businesses," Staff Studies 165, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
- Chee K. Ng & Janet Kiholm Smith & Richard L. Smith, 1999. "Evidence on the Determinants of Credit Terms Used in Interfirm Trade," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 54(3), pages 1109-1129, 06.
- Smith, Clifford W. & Stulz, René M., 1985. "The Determinants of Firms' Hedging Policies," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 20(04), pages 391-405, December.
- Thomas, Jonathan & Worrall, Tim, 1988. "Self-enforcing Wage Contracts," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 55(4), pages 541-54, October.
- Mariassunta Giannetti & Mike Burkart & Tore Ellingsen, 0.
"What You Sell Is What You Lend? Explaining Trade Credit Contracts,"
Review of Financial Studies,
Society for Financial Studies, vol. 24(4), pages 1261-1298.
- Burkart, Mike & Ellingsen, Tore & Giannetti, Mariassunta, 2004. "What You Sell is What You Lend? Explaining Trade Credit Contracts," CEPR Discussion Papers 4823, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Giuseppe Marotta, 2003.
"When do trade credit discounts matter? Evidence from Italian firm-level data,"
Heterogeneity and monetary policy
0303, Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Dipartimento di Economia Politica.
- Giuseppe Marotta, 2005. "When do trade credit discounts matter? Evidence from Italian firm-level data," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 37(4), pages 403-416.
- Marcel Boyer & M. Martin Boyer & René Garcia, 2005. "The Value of Real and Financial Risk Management," CIRANO Working Papers 2005s-38, CIRANO.
- John R. Graham & Daniel A. Rogers, 2002. "Do Firms Hedge in Response to Tax Incentives?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(2), pages 815-839, 04.
- Stulz, René M., 1984. "Optimal Hedging Policies," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 19(02), pages 127-140, June.
- GOBERT, Karine & POITEVIN, Michel, 1998.
"Non-Commitment and Savings in Dynamic Risk-Sharing Contracts,"
Cahiers de recherche
9806, Universite de Montreal, Departement de sciences economiques.
- Karine Gobert & Michel Poitevin, 2006. "Non-commitment and savings in dynamic risk-sharing contracts," Economic Theory, Springer, vol. 28(2), pages 357-372, 06.
- Demirguc-Kunt, Asli & Maksimovic, Vojislav, 2001. "Firms as financial intermediaries - evidence from trade credit data," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2696, The World Bank.
- Jyrki Niskanen & Mervi Niskanen, 2006. "The Determinants of Corporate Trade Credit Policies in a Bank-dominated Financial Environment: the Case of Finnish Small Firms," European Financial Management, European Financial Management Association, vol. 12(1), pages 81-102.
- Ginés Hernández-Cánovas & Pedro Martínez-Solano, 2007. "Effect of the Number of Banking Relationships on Credit Availability: Evidence from Panel Data of Spanish Small Firms," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 28(1), pages 37-53, January.
- Brennan, Michael J & Maksimovic, Vojislav & Zechner, Josef, 1988. " Vendor Financing," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 43(5), pages 1127-41, December.
- Biais, Bruno & Gollier, Christian, 1997. "Trade Credit and Credit Rationing," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 10(4), pages 903-37.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Luc Savard).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.