Education Outcomes in the Philippines
AbstractThis paper identifies key determinants of individual, school, and quality of education outcomes and examines related policies, strategies, and project intervention to recommend reforms or possible reorientation. Two sets of data were used: (i) data on school resources and outputs from the administrative reporting systems of the Department of Education; and (ii) the 2002, 2004, and 2007 Annual Poverty Indicator Surveys. Analysis of individual, school, and quality of education outcomes showed that although school resources such as pupil–teacher ratio is a key determinant for both individual and school outcomes, and that per capita miscellaneous operating and other expenses are significant factors in determining quality of education outcome, socioeconomic characteristics are stronger determinants. Children of families in the lower-income deciles and with less educated household heads are vulnerable and less likely to attend school. Girls have better odds of attending school than boys. Working children, especially males, are less likely to attend secondary school. On the basis of these results, recommendations in the areas of policy and programs are discussed to help address further deterioration, reverse the declining trend, and/or sustain gains so far in improving basic education system performance outcomes.
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Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Asian Development Bank in its series ADB Economics Working Paper Series with number 199.
Length: 71 pages
Date of creation: May 2010
Date of revision:
education outcomes; education production functions; fixed effects; random effects; pupil-teacher ratio;
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- Jose Ramon G. Albert & Andre Philippe Ramos, 2010. "Trends in Household Vulnerability," Development Economics Working Papers 22805, East Asian Bureau of Economic Research.
- Albert, Jose Ramon G. & David, Clarissa, 2012. "Primary Education: Barriers to Entry and Bottlenecks to Completion," Discussion Papers DP 2012-07, Philippine Institute for Development Studies.
- Albert, Jose Ramon G. & Ramos, Andre Philippe, 2010. "Trends in Household Vulnerability," Discussion Papers DP 2010-01, Philippine Institute for Development Studies.
- Albert, Jose Ramon G. & Ramos, Andre Philippe & Quimba, Francis Mark A. & Almeda, Jocelyn P., 2012. "Profile of Out-of-School Children in the Philippines," Discussion Papers DP 2012-01, Philippine Institute for Development Studies.
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