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A New Indicator of Competitiveness for Italy and the Main Industrial and Emerging Countries

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  • Finicelli, Andrea
  • Liccardi, Alessandra
  • Sbracia, Massimo

Abstract

This paper presents the new competitiveness indicators of the Bank of Italy. While the old ones were calculated with reference to 25 industrial or OECD countries, the new indicators are available for 62 countries, including the main emerging and developing economies. In order to extend the country coverage, we have used a new methodology to compute country weights, introduced by the Federal Reserve, which is entirely based on trade flows; by contrast, the previous IMF-BIS methodology adopted for the old indicators required also data on the domestic production of the manufacturing sector — figures that are rarely available for non-industrial countries. In addition, we have adjusted the trade flows of China and Hong Kong as suggested in the literature, in order to reduce the distortions due to the entrepôt trade of these two countries. Results show that methodological differences have a negligible impact on competitiveness indicators; on the other hand, the effect of the country coverage may be quite remarkable. In Italy’s case, the old and new indicators show a similar dynamics in the period from January 1980 to September 2005; differences in levels, well-contained between 1980 and 1993, grow thereafter reaching a maximum of 5.5 percentage points. During the recent phase of dollar depreciation began in February 2002, Italy recorded a sharp decline in competitiveness. In addition to the United States, the countries that mostly contributed to this negative performance were Japan, China, Hong Kong and Taiwan. These losses were partly offset by the gains recorded with respect to several central and eastern European countries.

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Paper provided by University Library of Munich, Germany in its series MPRA Paper with number 4703.

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Date of creation: 05 Dec 2005
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Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:4703

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Keywords: Real Effective Exchange Rate; Entrepôt trade; Competitiveness;

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References

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  1. John Fernald & Hali Edison & Prakash Loungani, 1998. "Was China the first domino? assessing links between China and the rest of emerging Asia," International Finance Discussion Papers 604, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  2. Luca Buldorini & Stelios Makrydakis & Christian Thimann, 2002. "The effective exchange rates of the euro," Occasional Paper Series 02, European Central Bank.
  3. Michael P. Leahy, 1998. "New summary measures of the foreign exchange value of the dollar," Federal Reserve Bulletin, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.), issue Oct, pages 811-818.
  4. Robert C. Feenstra, 1999. "Discrepancies in International Data: An Application to China-Hong Kong Entrepot Trade," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 89(2), pages 338-343, May.
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Cited by:
  1. Macis, Mario & Schivardi, Fabiano, 2012. "Exports and Wages: Rent Sharing, Workforce Composition or Returns to Skills?," CEPR Discussion Papers 8931, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  2. Andrea Finicelli & Massimo Sbracia & Andrea Zaghini, 2011. "A disaggregated analysis of the export performance of some industrial and emerging countries," International Economics and Economic Policy, Springer, vol. 8(1), pages 93-113, April.
  3. Matteo Bugamelli & Fabiano Schivardi & Roberta Zizza, 2009. "The euro and firm restructuring," Temi di discussione (Economic working papers) 716, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
  4. Virginia Di Nino & Barry Eichengreen & Massimo Sbracia, 2011. "Real Exchange Rates, Trade, and Growth: Italy 1861-2011," Quaderni di storia economica (Economic History Working Papers) 10, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.

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