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Are Technoparks High Tech Fantasies? Lessons from the Tunisian Experience

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  • Mhenni, Hatem
  • Ben Youssef, Adel
  • Elaheebocus, N
  • Ragni, Ludovic

Abstract

The objective of this article is to contribute to the debate on the effectiveness of Technoparks (TP) in developing and emerging economies using the example of Tunisia. This article is based on a thorough desk review and informal interviews with TP entrepreneurs and managers in Tunisia. Setting up “ex-nihilo” ten TPs in Tunisia in the mid-1990s was a political decision. Having signed the Treaty of Marrakesh to enter in a Free Trade Zone with Arab Countries in 1989, and being the first Mediterranean country to enter in a free trade area with the EU in 1995, Tunisia needed to boost its productivity and competitiveness both within the EU and with other Arab states. As a response Technoparks started burgeoning in an attempt to address new economic challenges such as demand for highly skilled labour, jobs for youth, economic diversification, capturing the dividend of new technologies, and boosting regional development. In 1997, Tunisia set up El Ghazela -a competitive Technopark in Information and Communication Technologies (ICT). Six other TPs followed suit in various priority areas like biotechnology, energy, and agri-business which are still in progress. Tunisia’s eleventh development plan programmed for an additional three TPs in the south and in the west of the country. Of the ten TPs only El-Ghazala is effective. A key success factor was the interaction between government, higher education institutions and multinationals as well as the diaspora which played a crucial role in attracting multinationals. They also effectively linked Tunisian start-up companies to the international value chain of production. El-Ghazala had access to a critical mass of highly skilled researchers and a local labour market. The other TPs failed to put in place some of these necessary prerequisites. This article shows that setting up ten TPs in a small developing country like Tunisia was quite unrealistic. A better strategy would have been to concentrate on three or four specific centres of excellence such as performing universities or industrial zones and leverage the diaspora more effectively.

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Paper provided by University Library of Munich, Germany in its series MPRA Paper with number 46183.

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Date of creation: Jan 2013
Date of revision: Mar 2013
Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:46183

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Keywords: Technoparks; Centers of Excellence; Science; Technology and Innovation; Research and Development spillovers; Industrial Policy; Tunisia;

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  1. Colombo, Massimo G. & Delmastro, Marco, 2002. "How effective are technology incubators?: Evidence from Italy," Research Policy, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 31(7), pages 1103-1122, September.
  2. Slavo Radosevic & Marat Myrzakhmet, 2006. "Between Vision And Reality: Promoting Innovation Through Technoparks In Kazakhstan," Working Papers, CENTRE FOR THE STUDY OF ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL CHANGE IN EUROPE,School of Slavonic and East European Studies,University College London (SSEES,UCL) 66, CENTRE FOR THE STUDY OF ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL CHANGE IN EUROPE,School of Slavonic and East European Studies,University College London (SSEES,UCL).
  3. Catalin Boja, 2011. "Clusters Models, Factors and Characteristics," International Journal of Economic Practices and Theories, Academy of Economic Studies - Bucharest, Romania, Academy of Economic Studies - Bucharest, Romania, vol. 1(1), pages 34-43, July.
  4. Zucker, Lynne G & Darby, Michael R & Brewer, Marilynn B, 1998. "Intellectual Human Capital and the Birth of U.S. Biotechnology Enterprises," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 88(1), pages 290-306, March.
  5. Hu, Albert Guangzhou, 2007. "Technology parks and regional economic growth in China," Research Policy, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 36(1), pages 76-87, February.
  6. Gabsi, Foued & Mhenni, Hatem & Koouba, Karim, 2008. "Innovation Determinants in Emerging Countries: An Empirical Study at the Tunisian Firms level," MPRA Paper 17940, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 2008.
  7. Jovanovic, Boyan, 1982. "Selection and the Evolution of Industry," Econometrica, Econometric Society, Econometric Society, vol. 50(3), pages 649-70, May.
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