Does improved sanitation reduce diarrhea in children in rural India?
AbstractNearly nine million children under five years of age die annually. Diarrhea is considered to be the second leading cause of Under-5 mortality in developing countries. About one out of five deaths are caused by diarrhea. In this paper, we use the newly available data set DLHS-3 to quantify the impact of access to improved sanitation on diarrheal morbidity for children under five years of age in India. Using Propensity Score Matching (PSM) and propensity-based weighted regression, we find that access to improved sanitation reduces the risk of contracting diarrhea. Access to improved sanitation decreases child diarrhea incidence by 2.2 percentage points. There is considerable heterogeneity in the impacts of improved sanitation. We neither find statistically significant treatment eects for children in poor household nor for girls, however, boys and high socioeconomic status (SES) children experienced larger treatment effects. The results show that it is important to complement public policies on sanitation with policies that alleviate poverty, improve parent's education and promote gender equity.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by University Library of Munich, Germany in its series MPRA Paper with number 31804.
Date of creation: 21 Mar 2011
Date of revision:
Water; Sanitation; Diarrhea; Propensity score; Matching; India.;
Other versions of this item:
- Santosh Kumar & Sebastian Vollmer, 2012. "Does Improved Sanitation Reduce Diarrhea in Children in Rural India?," Courant Research Centre: Poverty, Equity and Growth - Discussion Papers 107, Courant Research Centre PEG.
- C35 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Discrete Regression and Qualitative Choice Models; Discrete Regressors; Proportions
- D10 - Microeconomics - - Household Behavior - - - General
- I10 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Health - - - General
- O12 - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Microeconomic Analyses of Economic Development
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2011-07-02 (All new papers)
- NEP-DEV-2011-07-02 (Development)
- NEP-HEA-2011-07-02 (Health Economics)
- NEP-HME-2011-07-02 (Heterodox Microeconomics)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Jeffrey Smith & Petra Todd, 2003.
"Does Matching Overcome Lalonde's Critique of Nonexperimental Estimators?,"
University of Western Ontario, CIBC Centre for Human Capital and Productivity Working Papers, University of Western Ontario, CIBC Centre for Human Capital and Productivity
20035, University of Western Ontario, CIBC Centre for Human Capital and Productivity.
- A. Smith, Jeffrey & E. Todd, Petra, 2005. "Does matching overcome LaLonde's critique of nonexperimental estimators?," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 125(1-2), pages 305-353.
- Victoria Yue-May Fan & Ajay Mahal, 2011. "What prevents child diarrhoea? The impacts of water supply, toilets, and hand-washing in rural India," Journal of Development Effectiveness, Taylor & Francis Journals, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 3(3), pages 340-370, September.
- Jalan, Jyotsna & Ravallion, Martin, 2003.
"Does piped water reduce diarrhea for children in rural India?,"
Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier,
Elsevier, vol. 112(1), pages 153-173, January.
- Jalan, Jyotsna & Ravallion, Martin, 2001. "Does piped water reduce diarrhea for children in rural India ?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2664, The World Bank.
- Keisuke Hirano & Guido W. Imbens & Geert Ridder, 2000.
"Efficient Estimation of Average Treatment Effects Using the Estimated Propensity Score,"
NBER Technical Working Papers
0251, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Keisuke Hirano & Guido W. Imbens & Geert Ridder, 2003. "Efficient Estimation of Average Treatment Effects Using the Estimated Propensity Score," Econometrica, Econometric Society, Econometric Society, vol. 71(4), pages 1161-1189, 07.
- Guido Imbens, 2000. "Efficient Estimation of Average Treatment Effects Using the Estimated Propensity Score," Econometric Society World Congress 2000 Contributed Papers, Econometric Society 1166, Econometric Society.
- Duraiswamy, P., 2001. "Health status and curative health care in rural India," Working Papers, National Council of Applied Economic Research 78, National Council of Applied Economic Research.
- Watson, Tara, 2006. "Public health investments and the infant mortality gap: Evidence from federal sanitation interventions on U.S. Indian reservations," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 90(8-9), pages 1537-1560, September.
- Sascha O. Becker & Marco Caliendo, 2007.
"Sensitivity analysis for average treatment effects,"
Stata Journal, StataCorp LP,
StataCorp LP, vol. 7(1), pages 71-83, February.
- Becker, Sascha O. & Caliendo, Marco, 2007. "mhbounds – Sensitivity Analysis for Average Treatment Effects," IZA Discussion Papers 2542, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Sascha O. Becker & Marco Caliendo, 2007. "mhbounds - Sensitivity Analysis for Average Treatment Effects," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 659, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
- Ravallion, Martin, 2005.
"Evaluating anti-poverty programs,"
Policy Research Working Paper Series
3625, The World Bank.
- Dasgupta, Purnamita, 2004. "Valuing health damages from water pollution in urban Delhi, India: a health production function approach," Environment and Development Economics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 9(01), pages 83-106, February.
- Barbara Sianesi, 2004. "An Evaluation of the Swedish System of Active Labor Market Programs in the 1990s," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 86(1), pages 133-155, February.
- Michael Kremer & Alix Peterson Zwane, 2007. "Cost-Effective Prevention of Diarrheal Diseases: A Critical Review," Working Papers, Center for Global Development 117, Center for Global Development.
- Heckman, James J & Ichimura, Hidehiko & Todd, Petra E, 1997. "Matching as an Econometric Evaluation Estimator: Evidence from Evaluating a Job Training Programme," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 64(4), pages 605-54, October.
- Heckman, James J. & Robb, Richard Jr., 1985. "Alternative methods for evaluating the impact of interventions : An overview," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 30(1-2), pages 239-267.
- Sascha O. Becker & Andrea Ichino, 2002. "Estimation of average treatment effects based on propensity scores," Stata Journal, StataCorp LP, StataCorp LP, vol. 2(4), pages 358-377, November.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Ekkehart Schlicht).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.