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Financial development and income inequality in Pakistan: An application of ARDL approach

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  • Shahbaz, Muhammad
  • Islam, Faridul

Abstract

The paper examines the relationship between financial development and income inequality; and also explores if the Greenwood and Jovianvich (GJ) hypothesis applies to Pakistan. Using data from 1971 to 2005, the paper implements the Auto Regressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach to cointegration to examine the existence of long run; and the error correction model (ECM) for the short run relationships. Stationarity properties of the series are checked by the ADF method. The findings indicate that financial development reduces income inequality while financial instability aggravates it. Contrary to the conventional wisdom, we find economic growth worsens income distribution and that the latter is deteriorated further by trade openness. The paper does not find support for the GJ relation. Appropriate reforms aimed at developing a well-organized financial sector in Pakistan can help reduce income inequality.

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Paper provided by University Library of Munich, Germany in its series MPRA Paper with number 28222.

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Date of creation: 15 Jan 2011
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Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:28222

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Keywords: Financial Development; Income Inequality;

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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Ziv Chinzara & Radhika Lahiri, 2012. "Economic growth and inequality patterns in the presence of costly technology adoption and uncertainty," School of Economics and Finance Discussion Papers and Working Papers Series, School of Economics and Finance, Queensland University of Technology 280, School of Economics and Finance, Queensland University of Technology.
  2. Rabia Butt & Attiya Yasmin Javid, 2013. "Foreign Aid and the Fiscal Behaviour of Government of Pakistan," PIDE-Working Papers, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics 2013:96, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics.
  3. Uddin, Gazi Salah & Shahbaz, Muhammad & AROURI, Mohamed El Hedi, 2013. "Financial Development and Poverty Reduction Nexus:A Cointegration and Causality Analysis in Bangladesh," MPRA Paper 49264, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 23 Aug 2013.
  4. Muhammad Shahbaz & Talat Afza & Muhammad Shahbaz Shabbir, 2013. "Financial Development, Domestic Savings and Poverty Reduction in Pakistan: Using Cointegration and Granger Causality Analysis," International Journal of Economics and Empirical Research (IJEER), The Economics and Social Development Organization (TESDO), The Economics and Social Development Organization (TESDO), vol. 1(5), pages 59-73, May.
  5. Shahbaz, Muhammad, 2010. "Does financial instability increase environmental pollution in Pakistan?," MPRA Paper 31360, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 28 Mar 2011.
  6. Abu N. M., Wahid & Muhammad, Shahbaz & Pervez, Azeem, 2011. "Inflation and financial sector correlation: the case of Bangladesh," MPRA Paper 32935, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 20 Aug 2011.
  7. Muhammad, Shahbaz & Faridul, Islam & Muhammad Sabihuddin, Butt, 2011. "Devaluation and income inequality: Evidence from Pakistan," MPRA Paper 35522, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 21 Dec 2011.
  8. Muhammad Shahbaz & Faridul Islam & Muhammad Sabihuddin Butt, 2013. "Devaluation and Income Inequality Nexus: Evidence from Pakistan," International Journal of Economics and Empirical Research (IJEER), The Economics and Social Development Organization (TESDO), The Economics and Social Development Organization (TESDO), vol. 1(4), pages 48-58, April.
  9. Muhammad Shahbaz & Naveed Aamir, 2007. "Rural-Urban Income Inequality under Financial Development and Trade Openness in Pakistan: The Econometric Evidence," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 46(4), pages 657-672.
  10. Gazi Salah Uddin & Muhammed Shahbaz & Mohamed Arouri & Frédéric Teulon, 2014. "Financial Development and Poverty Reduction Nexus: A cointegration and causality analysis in Bangladesh," Working Papers, Department of Research, Ipag Business School 2014-291, Department of Research, Ipag Business School.
  11. Muhammad, Shahbaz & Tiwari, Aviral & Reza, Sherafatian-Jahromi, 2012. "Financial Development and Income Inequality: Is there any Financial Kuznets curve in Iran?," MPRA Paper 40899, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 26 Aug 2012.
  12. Stefan D. Josten, 2013. "Middle-Class Consensus, Social Capital And The Fundamental Causes Of Economic Growth And Development," Journal of Economic Development, Chung-Ang Unviersity, Department of Economics, Chung-Ang Unviersity, Department of Economics, vol. 38(1), pages 1-26, March.
  13. Shahbaz, Muhammad & Ur Rehman, Ijaz, 2013. "Multivariate–Based Granger Causality between Financial Deepening and Poverty: The Case of Pakistan," MPRA Paper 50834, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 20 Oct 2013.

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