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Fixing Capital Gains: Symmetry, Consistency and Correctness in the Taxation of Financial Instruments

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  • David F. Bradford

Abstract

A great deal of effort and ingenuity has been addressed to patching holes in the income tax attributable to realization accounting. A classic instance of the problem is the headachescreated by capital gains, whereby the taxpayer can choose to postpone recognition of gain and accelerate recognition of loss (known as cherry picking). The inconsistencies resulting from realization accounting are most pronounced than in the taxation of financial instruments, especially requirements for income measurement rules based on realization that are `linear' in the sense that doubling a person's transactions will double the taxable income, and adding one set of transactions to another will result in the sum of the associated income. Under present realization conventions, the tax law cannot be linear because there would then be no limit on tax arbitrage profit via variations on borrowing with deductible interest and lending tax exempt. To focus on the principles, the paper assumes transactions are costless. In that case, it is shown that to deal with the intertemporal aspect requires virtually universal imputation of taxable interest income to basis. To deal with the risk aspect of the problem (lock-in and cherry picking) requires simply that the effective rate of tax on gains and losses be the same (not necessarily equal to the rate on intertemporal returns). A new method is proposed that satisfies the requirements for linear income measurement. It is shown that the retroactive taxation of gain devised by Alan Auerbach is a special case of the new approach (involving a zero effective rate of tax on gains and losses).

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Working Papers with number 5754.

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Date of creation: Sep 1996
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Publication status: published as Tax Law Review, vol. 50, no. 4, pp. 731-785, 1995.
Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:5754

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  1. Louis Kaplow, 1991. "Taxation and Risk Taking: A General Equilibrium Perspective," NBER Working Papers 3709, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. Auerbach, Alan J, 1991. "Retrospective Capital Gains Taxation," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 81(1), pages 167-78, March.
  3. Kaplow, Louis, 1994. "Taxation and Risk Taking: A General Equilibrium Perspective," National Tax Journal, National Tax Association, vol. 47(4), pages 789-98, December.
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Cited by:
  1. Julian Alworth, 1998. "Taxation and Integrated Financial Markets: The Challenges of Derivatives and Other Financial Innovations," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer, vol. 5(4), pages 507-534, October.
  2. Francesco Menoncin & Paolo Panteghini, 2009. "Retrospective Capital Gains taxation in the real world," Working Papers 0910, University of Brescia, Department of Economics.
  3. David M. Schizer & Michael R. Powers & Martin Shubik, 2003. "Market Bubbles and Wasteful Avoidance: Tax and Regulatory Constraints on Short Sales," Yale School of Management Working Papers ysm356, Yale School of Management.
  4. Sureth, Caren & Voß, Armin, 2005. "Investitionsbereitschaft und zeitliche Indifferenz bei Realinvestitionen unter Unsicherheit und Steuern," arqus Discussion Papers in Quantitative Tax Research 2, arqus - Arbeitskreis Quantitative Steuerlehre.
  5. Sijbren Cnossen & Lans Bovenberg, 2001. "Fundamental Tax Reform in The Netherlands," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer, vol. 8(4), pages 471-484, August.
  6. Gordon, Roger H. & Hines, James Jr, 2002. "International taxation," Handbook of Public Economics, in: A. J. Auerbach & M. Feldstein (ed.), Handbook of Public Economics, edition 1, volume 4, chapter 28, pages 1935-1995 Elsevier.
  7. Niemann, Rainer & Sureth, Caren, 2009. "Investment effects of capital gains taxation under simultaneous investment and abandonment flexibility," arqus Discussion Papers in Quantitative Tax Research 77, arqus - Arbeitskreis Quantitative Steuerlehre.
  8. William Gentry & David M. Schizer, 2002. "Frictions and Tax-Motivated Hedging: An Empirical Exploration of Publicly-Traded Exchangeable Securities," NBER Working Papers 9243, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  9. Peter Sørensen, 2005. "Neutral Taxation of Shareholder Income," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer, vol. 12(6), pages 777-801, November.

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