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The Changing Effect of HMO Market Structure: An Analysis of Penetration, Concentration, and Ownership Between 1994-2005

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  • Yu-Chu Shen
  • Vivian Wu
  • Glenn Melnick
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    Abstract

    We analyze the role of three aspects of HMO market structure -- HMO penetration, HMO plan concentration, and HMO for-profit share on explaining hospital cost and revenue growth during the HMO expansion period (1994-1999) and backlash period (2000-2005). We find that HMO penetration effects differ over time: a 10 percentage point increase in HMO enrollment leads to 2.5 percent reduction in cost and revenues in the expansion period but only 0.4-1 percent reduction in the backlash period. Furthermore, this HMO backlash effect can be attributed to HMO dis-enrollment as well as the changing nature of HMO product. We find that revenue increases at a slower rate (by about 5 percent) in markets with relatively concentrated HMO markets power and more competitive hospital markets. Finally, increased for-profit HMO presence is associated with smaller cost and revenue growth, and the effect differs between low and high penetration markets.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Working Papers with number 13775.

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    Date of creation: Feb 2008
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    Publication status: published as Shen, Y., Wu, V., and Melnick, G. 2010. Trends in Hospital Cost and Revenue, 1994-2005: How Are They Related to HMO Penetration, Concentration and For-Profit Ownership. Health Services Research, 45 (1): 42-61.
    Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:13775

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    1. David M. Cutler & Louise Sheiner, 1997. "Managed Care and the Growth of Medical Expenditures," NBER Working Papers 6140, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    2. Cutler David M. & Sheiner Louise, 1998. "Managed Care and the Growth of Medical Expenditures," Forum for Health Economics & Policy, De Gruyter, vol. 1(1), pages 1-41, January.
    3. Robert Connor & Roger Feldman & Bryan Dowd, 1998. "The Effects of Market Concentration and Horizontal Mergers on Hospital Costs and Prices," International Journal of the Economics of Business, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 5(2), pages 159-180.
    4. Laurence C. Baker & Sharmila Shankarkumar, 1997. "Managed Care and Health Care Expenditures: Evidence From Medicare," NBER Working Papers 6187, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    5. Brooks, John M. & Dor, Avi & Wong, Herbert S., 1997. "Hospital-insurer bargaining: An empirical investigation of appendectomy pricing," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 16(4), pages 417-434, August.
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    Cited by:
    1. Bokhari, Farasat A.S., 2009. "Managed care competition and the adoption of hospital technology: The case of cardiac catheterization," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 27(2), pages 223-237, March.

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