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Automatic forecasting with a modified exponential smoothing state space framework

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  • Alysha M De Livera

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    Abstract

    A new automatic forecasting procedure is proposed based on a recent exponential smoothing framework which incorporates a Box-Cox transformation and ARMA residual corrections. The procedure is complete with well-defined methods for initialization, estimation, likelihood evaluation, and analytical derivation of point and interval predictions under a Gaussian error assumption. The algorithm is examined extensively by applying it to single seasonal and non-seasonal time series from the M and the M3 competitions, and is shown to provide competitive out-of-sample forecast accuracy compared to the best methods in these competitions and to the traditional exponential smoothing framework. The proposed algorithm can be used as an alternative to existing automatic forecasting procedures in modeling single seasonal and non-seasonal time series. In addition, it provides the new option of automatic modeling of multiple seasonal time series which cannot be handled using any of the existing automatic forecasting procedures. The proposed automatic procedure is further illustrated by applying it to two multiple seasonal time series involving call center data and electricity demand data.

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    File URL: http://www.buseco.monash.edu.au/ebs/pubs/wpapers/2010/wp10-10.pdf
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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by Monash University, Department of Econometrics and Business Statistics in its series Monash Econometrics and Business Statistics Working Papers with number 10/10.

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    Length: 29 pages
    Date of creation: 28 Apr 2010
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    Handle: RePEc:msh:ebswps:2010-10

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    Related research

    Keywords: Exponential smoothing; state space models; automatic forecasting; Box-Cox transformation; residual adjustment; multiple seasonality; time series;

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    References

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    Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
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    1. Hyndman, R.J. & Koehler, A.B. & Snyder, R.D. & Grose, S., 2000. "A State Space Framework for Automatic Forecasting Using Exponential Smoothing Methods," Monash Econometrics and Business Statistics Working Papers 9/00, Monash University, Department of Econometrics and Business Statistics.
    2. Ord, J.K. & Koehler, A. & Snyder, R.D., 1995. "Estimation and Prediction for a Class of Dynamic Nonlinear Statistical Models," Monash Econometrics and Business Statistics Working Papers 4/95, Monash University, Department of Econometrics and Business Statistics.
    3. Rob J. Hyndman & Anne B. Koehler, 2005. "Another Look at Measures of Forecast Accuracy," Monash Econometrics and Business Statistics Working Papers 13/05, Monash University, Department of Econometrics and Business Statistics.
    4. Rob J. Hyndman & Yeasmin Khandakar, . "Automatic Time Series Forecasting: The forecast Package for R," Journal of Statistical Software, American Statistical Association, vol. 27(i03).
    5. Tashman, Leonard J. & Leach, Michael L., 1991. "Automatic forecasting software: A survey and evaluation," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 7(2), pages 209-230, August.
    6. Alysha M De Livera & Rob J Hyndman, 2009. "Forecasting time series with complex seasonal patterns using exponential smoothing," Monash Econometrics and Business Statistics Working Papers 15/09, Monash University, Department of Econometrics and Business Statistics.
    7. Makridakis, Spyros & Hibon, Michele, 2000. "The M3-Competition: results, conclusions and implications," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 16(4), pages 451-476.
    8. Makridakis, Spyros, 1993. "Accuracy measures: theoretical and practical concerns," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 9(4), pages 527-529, December.
    9. Rob Hyndman & Muhammad Akram & Blyth Archibald, 2008. "The admissible parameter space for exponential smoothing models," Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics, Springer, vol. 60(2), pages 407-426, June.
    10. Everette S. Gardner, Jr. & Ed. Mckenzie, 1985. "Forecasting Trends in Time Series," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 31(10), pages 1237-1246, October.
    11. Md B. Billah & R.J. Hyndman & A.B. Koehler, 2003. "Empirical Information Criteria for Time Series Forecasting Model Selection," Monash Econometrics and Business Statistics Working Papers 2/03, Monash University, Department of Econometrics and Business Statistics.
    12. Anne B. Koehler & Rob J. Hyndman & Ralph D. Snyder & J. Keith Ord, 2005. "Prediction intervals for exponential smoothing using two new classes of state space models," Journal of Forecasting, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 24(1), pages 17-37.
    13. Robert R. Andrawis & Amir F. Atiya, 2009. "A new Bayesian formulation for Holt's exponential smoothing," Journal of Forecasting, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 28(3), pages 218-234.
    14. Makridakis, Spyros & Chatfield, Chris & Hibon, Michele & Lawrence, Michael & Mills, Terence & Ord, Keith & Simmons, LeRoy F., 1993. "The M2-competition: A real-time judgmentally based forecasting study," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 9(1), pages 5-22, April.
    15. Muhammad Akram & Rob J Hyndman & J. Keith Ord, 2008. "Exponential smoothing and non-negative data," Working Papers 2008-003, The George Washington University, Department of Economics, Research Program on Forecasting.
    16. Hyndman, R.J. & Koehler, A.B. & Ord, J.K. & Snyder, R.D., 2001. "Prediction Intervals for Exponential Smoothing State Space Models," Monash Econometrics and Business Statistics Working Papers 11/01, Monash University, Department of Econometrics and Business Statistics.
    17. Geriner, Pamela Texter & Ord, J. Keith, 1991. "Automatic forecasting using explanatory variables: A comparative study," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 7(2), pages 127-140, August.
    18. Taylor, James W., 2008. "An evaluation of methods for very short-term load forecasting using minute-by-minute British data," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 24(4), pages 645-658.
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