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Pauvreté et fécondité en Haïti

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    Abstract

    L'objectif principal de ce papier est d'analyser la relation entre la pauvreté et la fécondité à partir des données de Enquête Démographique et de Santé (EDS) d'Haïti de 1994-1995. Pour ce faire, d'une part, la pauvreté est appréhendée principalement selon deux types d'approche : (i) l'approche axée sur le concept d'actifs essentiels comprenant, d'un côté, l'approche traditionnelle relative à l'accès des ménages à un certain nombre de biens et services de base et, de l'autre, l'approche restreinte exprimée en termes de stratification socio-économique du niveau de vie ; et (ii) l'approche portant sur le concept de fonctionnements ou capabilités élémentaires de Sen [1985, 1992, 1999]. D'autre part, le concept de fécondité retenu est la parité – nombre moyen d'enfants qu'a eu une femme pendant les cinq années précédant l'enquête. Dans cette perspective, la présente étude permet d'aboutir aux conclusions suivantes. En premier lieu, contrairement à ce que prétendent certains auteurs, la relation « pauvreté-fécondité » semble plus complexe et plus ou moins directe. En effet, on constate que l'idée très répandue - issue de la théorie de la Nouvelle Economie du Ménage (NEM) - selon laquelle la pauvreté est à l'origine d'une fécondité élevée, est confirmée ou infirmée selon les indicateurs de pauvreté considérés, le choix de ces derniers influençant considérablement le sens de la relation. En deuxième lieu, il apparaît à l'étude de la relation entre la pauvreté exprimée en termes de stratification socio-économique et la fécondité que les affirmations des auteurs de la NEM sont vraies. En revanche, il n'en est pas de même de la mesure de la pauvreté axée, d'un côté, sur les fonctionnements ou les capabilités élémentaires et, de l'autre, sur la disponibilité d'un certain nombre d'actifs essentiels. En troisième lieu, il est crucial de tenir compte de l'importance du contexte dans lequel est menée l'étude. Ainsi la présente recherche permet-elle de mettre en lumière le rôle que peut jouer plus ou moins directement le phénomène du travail des enfants en Haïti dans les comportements de fécondité en rapport avec l'accès à certains biens durables productifs (réfrigérateur, cheval ou mule). En quatrième lieu, il importe que les initiatives en termes de politique démographique comportent un volet réservé aux interactions qui peuvent exister entre la pauvreté non monétaire - celle basée sur l'accès aux biens et services essentiels - et certaines caractéristiques individuelles des femmes et de leurs conjoints/maris (instruction, profession, etc.). The principal objective of this paper is to analyze the relation between poverty and fertility starting from the data of Demographic Health Survey (EDS) of Haiti of 1994-1995. With this intention, on the one hand, poverty is apprehended mainly according to two types of approach: (i) approach centered on the concept of essential assets including/understanding, on a side, the traditional approach relating to the access of the households to a certain number of goods and basic services and, other, the restricted approach expressed in terms of socio-economic stratification of the standard of living; and (ii) approach relating to the concept of functionings or elementary capabilities of Sen [ 1985, 1992, 1999 ]. In addition, the concept of fertility retained is the parity - an average number children whom a woman had preceding during the five years the investigation. From this point of view, the present study makes it possible to arrive at the following conclusions. Initially, as opposed to what certain authors claim, the relation "poverty-fertility" seems more complex and more or less direct. Indeed, one notes that the very widespread idea - exit of the theory of the New Economy of Household (NEM) - according to which poverty is at the origin of a raised fertility, is confirmed or cancelled according to indicators' of poverty considered, the choice of the latter influencing the direction of the relation considerably. In second place, it appears being studied of the relation between the poverty expressed in terms of socio-economic stratification and fertility that the assertions of the authors of the NEM are true. On the other hand, it is not the same measurement of the poverty centered, on a side, on elementary functionings or capabilities and, other, on the availability of a certain number of essential assets. In third place, it is crucial to hold account of the importance of the context in which the study is undertaken. Thus present research makes it possible it to clarify the part which the phenomenon of the child work can play more or less directly in Haiti in the behaviors of fertility in connection with the access to certain productive durable goods (refrigerator, horse or mule). In fourth place, it matters that the initiatives in terms of demographic policy comprise a shutter reserved for the interactions which can exist between nonmonetary poverty - that based on the access to essential goods and services - and certain individual characteristics of the women and their spouses/husbands (instruction, profession, etc). (Full text in French)

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    Paper provided by Groupe d'Economie du Développement de l'Université Montesquieu Bordeaux IV in its series Documents de travail with number 97.

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    Length: 40 pages
    Date of creation: Apr 2004
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    Handle: RePEc:mon:ceddtr:97

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    1. Cohen, Barney & House, William J., 1994. "Demographic behavior and poverty: Micro-level evidence from Southern Sudan," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 22(7), pages 1031-1044, July.
    2. Ainsworth, M., 1989. "Socioeconmic Determinants Of Fertility In Cote D'Ivoire," Papers 53, World Bank - Living Standards Measurement.
    3. Jean-Pierre Lachaud, 1996. "Les femmes et le marché du travail urbain en Afrique subsaharienne," Série de recherche 01, Groupe d'Economie du Développement de l'Université Montesquieu Bordeaux IV.
    4. Benefo, Kofi & Schultz, T Paul, 1996. "Fertility and Child Mortality in Cote d'Ivoire and Ghana," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 10(1), pages 123-58, January.
    5. Cameron, A. Colin & Trivedi, Pravin K., 1990. "Regression-based tests for overdispersion in the Poisson model," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 46(3), pages 347-364, December.
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