Pollution Haven Hypothesis and the Role of Dirty Industries in Turkey’s Exports
AbstractPollution haven hypothesis argues that the industries that are highly pollution intensive i.e. dirty industries, have been migrating from developed economies to the developing world. It is argued that the environmental concerns of the developed economies caused them to enact strict environmental regulations, which have increased the cost of production of the dirty industries at home. On the other hand, the developing countries with their low wages and lax environmental regulations have been attractive alternative producers in these sectors. At the same time this migration is also beneficial for developing countries that are in need of financial resources for industrial development. Consequently, developing countries provide pollution havens for dirty industries. In this process while the dirty industries have been migrating to the developing countries, the developed countries also have become net importers of these sectors. In this study the pollution haven argument for Turkey, for 1994-1997 period is examined. The study focuses on the pollution haven hypothesis from trade perspective by looking at the manufacturing industry data at 4-digit ISIC detail by using the panel data approach. It is found that exports increase as the dirtiness of the industries increases, providing some evidence for the pollution haven hypothesis.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by ERC - Economic Research Center, Middle East Technical University in its series ERC Working Papers with number 0403.
Length: 17 pages
Date of creation: Feb 2004
Date of revision: Feb 2004
Turkey; Pollution Haven Hypothesis; environment; manufacturing;
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- N5 - Economic History - - Agriculture, Natural Resources, Environment and Extractive Industries
- O13 - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Agriculture; Natural Resources; Environment; Other Primary Products
- Q56 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Environment and Development; Environment and Trade; Sustainability; Environmental Accounts and Accounting; Environmental Equity; Population Growth
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2004-10-21 (All new papers)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Eskeland, Gunnar S. & Harrison, Ann E., 2003.
"Moving to greener pastures? Multinationals and the pollution haven hypothesis,"
Journal of Development Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 70(1), pages 1-23, February.
- Eskeland, Gunnar S. & Harrison, Ann E., 1997. "Moving to greener pastures : multinationals and the pollution-haven hypothesis," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1744, The World Bank.
- Gunnar A. Eskeland & Ann E. Harrison, 2002. "Moving to Greener Pastures? Multinationals and the Pollution Haven Hypothesis," NBER Working Papers 8888, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Yuquing Xing & Charles Kolstad, 2002.
"Do Lax Environmental Regulations Attract Foreign Investment?,"
Environmental & Resource Economics,
European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 21(1), pages 1-22, January.
- Kolstad, Charles D. & Xing, Yuqing, 1998. "Do Lax Environmental Regulations Attract Foreign Investment?," University of California at Santa Barbara, Economics Working Paper Series qt3268z4rx, Department of Economics, UC Santa Barbara.
- Adam B. Jaffe et al., 1995. "Environmental Regulation and the Competitiveness of U.S. Manufacturing: What Does the Evidence Tell Us?," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 33(1), pages 132-163, March.
- Larson, Bruce A. & Nicolaides, Eri & Al Zu'bi, Bashir & Sukkar, Nabil & Laraki, Karim & Matoussi, Mohamed Salah & Zaim, Katalin & Chouchani, Carol, 2002. "The Impact of Environmental Regulations on Exports: Case Study Results from Cyprus, Jordan, Morocco, Syria, Tunisia, and Turkey," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 30(6), pages 1057-1072, June.
- Xinpeng Xu, 2000. "International Trade and Environmental Regulation: Time Series Evidence and Cross Section Test," Environmental & Resource Economics, European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 17(3), pages 233-257, November.
- Wilson, John S. & Tsunehiro Otsuki & Sewadeh, Mirvat, 2002. "Dirty exports and environmental regulation : do standards matter to trade?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2806, The World Bank.
- Copeland,B.R. & Scott Taylor,M., 2003.
"Trade, growth and the environment,"
10, Wisconsin Madison - Social Systems.
- Hausman, Jerry A, 1978.
"Specification Tests in Econometrics,"
Econometric Society, vol. 46(6), pages 1251-71, November.
- Revesz, Richard L. & Stavins, Robert N., 2007. "Environmental Law," Handbook of Law and Economics, Elsevier.
- Haixiao Huang, Walter C. Labys, 2002. "Environment and trade: a review of issues and methods," International Journal of Global Environmental Issues, Inderscience Enterprises Ltd, vol. 2(1/2), pages 100-160.
- J. Humberto Lopez & Rashmi Shankar, 2011. "Getting the Most Out of Free Trade Agreements in Central America," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 2322, October.
- Chakraborty, Debashis & Mukherjee, Sacchidananda, 2010. "Relationship between Trade, Investment and Environment: A Review of Issues," MPRA Paper 23333, University Library of Munich, Germany.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Erol Taymaz).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.