Product Complexity and Economic Development
AbstractWe rank 5,107 products and 124 countries according to the Hidalgo and Hausmann (2009) measures of complexity. We find that: (1) the most complex products are in machinery, chemicals, and metals, while the least complex products are raw materials and commodities, wood, textiles, and agricultural products; (2) the most complex economies in the world are Japan, Germany, and Sweden, and the least complex, Cambodia, Papua New Guinea, and Nigeria; (3) the major exporters of the more complex products are the high-income countries, while the major exporters of the less complex products are the low-income countries; and (4) export shares of the more complex products increase with income, while export shares of the less complex products decrease with income. Finally, we relate the measure of product complexity with the concept of Complex Products and Systems, and find a high degree of conformity between them.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Levy Economics Institute in its series Economics Working Paper Archive with number wp_616.
Date of creation: Sep 2010
Date of revision:
Contact details of provider:
Web page: http://www.levyinstitute.org
Capabilities; Development; Economic Complexity; Diversification; Method of Reflections; Product Complexity; Ubiquity;
Other versions of this item:
- O10 - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - General
- O14 - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Industrialization; Manufacturing and Service Industries; Choice of Technology
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2010-09-18 (All new papers)
- NEP-DEV-2010-09-18 (Development)
- NEP-INT-2010-09-18 (International Trade)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Hobday, Mike, 1998. "Product complexity, innovation and industrial organisation," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 26(6), pages 689-710, February.
- repec:sae:ecolab:v:16:y:2006:i:2:p:1-2 is not listed on IDEAS
- Lall, Sanjaya, 1992. "Technological capabilities and industrialization," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 20(2), pages 165-186, February.
- Virginia Acha & Andrew Davies & Michael Hobday & Ammon Salter, 2004. "Exploring the capital goods economy: complex product systems in the UK," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 13(3), pages 505-529, June.
- Cesar A. Hidalgo & Ricardo Hausmann, 2009. "The Building Blocks of Economic Complexity," Papers 0909.3890, arXiv.org.
- Hobday, Mike & Rush, Howard & Tidd, Joe, 2000. "Innovation in complex products and system," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 29(7-8), pages 793-804, August.
- Lall, Sanjaya & Weiss, John & Zhang, Jinkang, 2006. "The "sophistication" of exports: A new trade measure," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 34(2), pages 222-237, February.
- M. Desai, S. Fukuda-Parr, C. Johansson, and F. Sagasti, 2002. "Measuring Technology Achievement of Nations and the Capacity to Participate in the Network Age," Human Development Occasional Papers (1992-2007) HDOCPA-2002-22, Human Development Report Office (HDRO), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).
- Daniele Archibugi & Alberto Coco, 2004.
"A New Indicator of Technological Capabilities for Developed and Developing Countries (ArCo),"
SPRU Working Paper Series
111, SPRU - Science and Technology Policy Research, University of Sussex.
- Archibugi, Daniele & Coco, Alberto, 2004. "A New Indicator of Technological Capabilities for Developed and Developing Countries (ArCo)," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 32(4), pages 629-654, April.
- Daniele Archibugi & Alberto Coco, 2004. "A New Indicator of Technological Capabilities for Developed and Developing Countries (ArCo)," CEIS Research Paper 44, Tor Vergata University, CEIS.
- W. W. Rostow, 1959. "The Stages Of Economic Growth," Economic History Review, Economic History Society, vol. 12(1), pages 1-16, 08.
- Hobday, Michael & Rush, Howard & Bessant, John, 2004. "Approaching the innovation frontier in Korea: the transition phase to leadership," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 33(10), pages 1433-1457, December.
- Kremer, Michael, 1993. "The O-Ring Theory of Economic Development," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 108(3), pages 551-75, August.
- Archibugi, Daniele & Coco, Alberto, 2005. "Measuring technological capabilities at the country level: A survey and a menu for choice," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(2), pages 175-194, March.
- Meghnad Desai & Sakiko Fukuda-Parr & Claes Johansson & Fransisco Sagasti, 2002. "Measuring the Technology Achievement of Nations and the Capacity to Participate in the Network Age," Journal of Human Development and Capabilities, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 3(1), pages 95-122.
- Thomas Hatzichronoglou, 1997. "Revision of the High-Technology Sector and Product Classification," OECD Science, Technology and Industry Working Papers 1997/2, OECD Publishing.
- C. A. Hidalgo & B. Klinger & A. -L. Barabasi & R. Hausmann, 2007. "The Product Space Conditions the Development of Nations," Papers 0708.2090, arXiv.org.
- Gnidchenko, Andrey A., 2012.
"Новый Метод Оценки Структуры И Базы Экспортного Потенциала
[The new method for estimating the structure and the basis of export potential]," MPRA Paper 43691, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Gnidchenko, A., 2014. "Improving the Methods for Estimating the Structure and the Basis of Export Potential through Export Diversification," Journal of the New Economic Association, New Economic Association, vol. 21(1), pages 83-109.
- Chen, Xi & Funke, Michael, 2013.
"The dynamics of catch-up and skill and technology upgrading in China,"
Journal of Macroeconomics,
Elsevier, vol. 38(PB), pages 465-480.
- Funke, Michael & Chen, Xi, 2012. "The dynamics of catch-up and skill and technology upgrading in China," BOFIT Discussion Papers 13/2012, Bank of Finland, Institute for Economies in Transition.
- Michael Funke & Xi Chen, 2012. "The dynamics of catch-up and skill and technology upgrading in China," Quantitative Macroeconomics Working Papers 21206, Hamburg University, Department of Economics.
- Jesus Felipe & John McCombie, 2010. "Modeling Technological Progress and Investment in China: Some Caveats," Economics Working Paper Archive wp_643, Levy Economics Institute.
- repec:unt:wpmpdd:wp/12/02 is not listed on IDEAS
- S. Devrim Yilmaz & Burak Saltoglu, 2013.
"Why is it so Difficult and Complex to Solve the Euro Problem?,"
Centre for Growth and Business Cycle Research Discussion Paper Series
180, Economics, The Univeristy of Manchester.
- Burak Saltoðlu & Devrim Yýlmaz, 2013. "Why is it so Difficult and Complex to Solve the Euro Problem?," Working Papers 2013/02, Bogazici University, Department of Economics.
- Sandra PONCET & Felipe STAROSTA DE WALDEMAR, 2012.
"Export upgrading and growth: the prerequisite of domestic embeddedness,"
- Poncet, Sandra & Starosta de Waldemar, Felipe, 2013. "Export Upgrading and Growth: The Prerequisite of Domestic Embeddedness," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 51(C), pages 104-118.
- Sandra Poncet & Felipe Starosta de Waldemar, 2012. "Export upgrading and growth: the prerequisite of domestic embeddedness," Working Papers 2012-26, CEPII research center.
- Sandra PONCET & Felipe STAROSTA DE WALDEMAR, 2012. "Export upgrading and growth: the prerequisite of domestic embeddedness," Working Papers P57, FERDI.
- Clovis Freire, . "Productive Capacities in Asia and the Pacific," MPDD Working Paper Series WP/11/17, United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP).
- Arnelyn Abdon & Jesus Felipe, 2011. "The Product Space: What Does It Say About the Opportunities for Growth and Structural Transformation of Sub-Saharan Africa?," Economics Working Paper Archive wp_670, Levy Economics Institute.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Marie-Celeste Edwards).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.