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Creative Class and Regional Growth - Empirical Evidence from Eight European Countries

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Author Info

  • Ron A. Boschma

    ()
    (Utrecht University, Department of Economic Geography, Utrecht, Netherlands)

  • Michael Fritsch

    ()
    (Friedrich Schiller University Jena, German Institute of Economic Research, Berlin, and Max Planck Institute of Economics, Jena, Germany)

Abstract

We analyze the regional distribution and the effect of people in creative occupations based on data for more than 450 regions in eight European countries. The geographic distribution of the creative class is highly uneven. The creative class is not attracted to highly urbanized regions per se, but rather a climate of tolerance and openness seem to be rather important factors. We find that the creative class has a positive and significant effect on employment growth and new business formation at the regional level. Human capital as measured by creative occupation outperforms indicators that are based on formal education.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Max-Planck-Institute of Economics in its series Jena Economic Research Papers with number 2007-066.

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Date of creation: 17 Sep 2007
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Handle: RePEc:jrp:jrpwrp:2007-066

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Keywords: Creativity; innovation; entrepreneurship; regional development;

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References

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  1. Gerard Marlet & Clemens van Woerkens, 2004. "Skills and Creativity in a Cross-section of Dutch Cities," Working Papers 04-29, Utrecht School of Economics.
  2. Michael Fritsch, 2004. "Entrepreneurship, Entry and Performance of New Businesses Compared in two Growth Regimes: East and West Germany," Papers on Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy 2004-41, Max Planck Institute of Economics, Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy Group.
  3. Michael Fritsch, 2007. "The Geography and the Effect of Creative People in Germany," Jena Economic Research Papers 2007-001, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Max-Planck-Institute of Economics.
  4. Richard Florida, 2002. "Bohemia and economic geography," Journal of Economic Geography, Oxford University Press, vol. 2(1), pages 55-71, January.
  5. Jamie Peck, 2005. "Struggling with the Creative Class," International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 29(4), pages 740-770, December.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Berggren, Niclas & Elinder, Mikael, 2010. "Is tolerance good or bad for growth?," Working Paper Series, Center for Fiscal Studies 2010:8, Uppsala University, Department of Economics.
  2. Jan Wedemeier, 2011. "Creative professionals and high-skilled agents': Polarization of employment growth?," ERSA conference papers ersa11p489, European Regional Science Association.
  3. Niclas Berggren & Therese Nilsson, 2013. "Does Economic Freedom Foster Tolerance?," Kyklos, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 66(2), pages 177-207, 05.
  4. Niels Bosma & R. Sternberg & Zoltan Acs, 2008. "The Entrepreneurial Advantage of World Cities," Scales Research Reports H200810, EIM Business and Policy Research.
  5. Krauskopf, Thomas & Bünger, Björn & Langen, Martin, 2010. "Cultural infrastructure and regional economic well-being in Germany: Are we creative yet?," CAWM Discussion Papers 30, Center of Applied Economic Research Münster (CAWM), University of Münster.
  6. Fritsch, Michael & Stützer, Michael, 2008. "The Geography of Creative People in Germany," MPRA Paper 21965, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  7. Joachim Möller & Annie Tubadji, 2009. "The Creative Class, Bohemians and Local Labor Market Performance A Micro-data Panel Study for Germany 1975–2004," Journal of Economics and Statistics (Jahrbuecher fuer Nationaloekonomie und Statistik), Justus-Liebig University Giessen, Department of Statistics and Economics, vol. 229(2-3), pages 270-291, June.
  8. Aurora A.C. Teixeira & Rosa Portela Forte, 2009. "Unbounding entrepreneurial intents of university students: a multidisciplinary perspective," FEP Working Papers 322, Universidade do Porto, Faculdade de Economia do Porto.
  9. Sara Santos Cruz & Aurora A.C. Teixeira, 2012. "Methodological approaches for measuring the creative employment: a critical appraisal with an application to Portugal," FEP Working Papers 455, Universidade do Porto, Faculdade de Economia do Porto.
  10. Annie Tubadji & Peter Nijkamp, 2013. "Cultural Distance and Gravity Effects among Migrants," ERSA conference papers ersa13p484, European Regional Science Association.
  11. Thomas Krauskopf & Björn Bünger & Martin Langen, . "Cultural Infrastructure and Regional Economic Well-Being in Germany - Are we creative yet?," Working Papers 200101, Institute of Spatial and Housing Economics, Munster Universitary.
  12. Carlos Iglesias Fernández & Raquel Llorente Heras & Diego Dueñas Fernández, 2011. "La movilidad international de los doctores españoles: ¿cuáles son sus determinantes?," Investigaciones de Economía de la Educación volume 6, in: Antonio Caparrós Ruiz (ed.), Investigaciones de Economía de la Educación 6, edition 1, volume 6, chapter 37, pages 593-611 Asociación de Economía de la Educación.
  13. Rik Wenting & Oedzge Atzema & Koen Frenken, 2008. "Urban Amenities or Agglomeration Economies? Locational Behaviour and Entrepreneurial Success of Dutch Fashion Designers," Papers in Evolutionary Economic Geography (PEEG) 0803, Utrecht University, Section of Economic Geography, revised Jan 2008.
  14. Maria Kola-Bezka, 2011. "Creativity as a Factor for Socio-economic Development of Polish Regions," Equilibrium, Uniwersytet Mikolaja Kopernika, vol. 6, pages 71-84.

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