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Modes of Delivery in Services

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  • Elisabeth Christen
  • Joseph Francois

Abstract

We develop a new analytical framework for both cross-border services trade and services trade through foreign affiliates, based on heterogeneous firms operating under oligopoly. This leads to direct predictions about choice of services delivery (mode of delivery) at the firm level, and about the pattern of bilateral trade at the industry level. We examine the industry-level predictions, working with a panel of U.S. data. Unlike the recent literature that works with FDI as a proxy for affiliate services sales, we work directly with data on bilateral U.S. trade through affiliates. These data feature more sector detail than in the recent literature. We also directly compare observed patterns of services trade and affiliate sales with the corresponding indicators of patterns of cross-border and affiliate sales for manufacturing sectors. In contrast to mixed results in manufacturing, in services overseas multinational activities consistently increase relative to direct exports the further away are host countries. Language and the presence of manufacturing FDI are also important. The impact of factors like corporate tax rates and relative stocks of human capital on modes of service delivery varies across sectors. The evidence on interdependence across modes and the importance of local affiliates implies that the impact of policy in any one mode is likely to depend on the mix of domestic regulation and policy across all modes of supply.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Department of Economics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria in its series Economics working papers with number 2010-08.

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Length: 44 pages
Date of creation: Jun 2010
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:jku:econwp:2010_08

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Keywords: International trade in Services; Modes of Supply; FDI; Foreign Affiliates Trade; GATS;

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References

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  1. Francois, Joseph & Wooton, Ian, 2007. "Market structure and market access," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4151, The World Bank.
  2. Helpman, Elhanan, 1984. "A Simple Theory of International Trade with Multinational Corporations," Scholarly Articles 3445092, Harvard University Department of Economics.
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  9. Papke, Leslie E & Wooldridge, Jeffrey M, 1996. "Econometric Methods for Fractional Response Variables with an Application to 401(K) Plan Participation Rates," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 11(6), pages 619-32, Nov.-Dec..
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  16. Horstmann, Ignatius J. & Markusen, James R., 1992. "Endogenous market structures in international trade (natura facit saltum)," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(1-2), pages 109-129, February.
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  18. Carmen Fillat-Castejón & Joseph F. Francois & Julia Wörz, 2009. "Cross-Border Trade and FDI in Services," wiiw Working Papers 50, The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw.
  19. James R. Markusen & Anthony J. Venables & Denise Eby Konan & Kevin H. Zhang, 1996. "A Unified Treatment of Horizontal Direct Investment, Vertical Direct Investment, and the Pattern of Trade in Goods and Services," NBER Working Papers 5696, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Elisabeth Christen, 2012. "Time zones matter: The impact of distance and time zones on services trade," Working Papers 2012-14, Faculty of Economics and Statistics, University of Innsbruck.
  2. Markus Kelle & Jörn Kleinert & Horst Raff & Farid Toubal, 2012. "Cross-Border and Foreign-Affiliate Sales of Services: Evidence from German Micro-Data," CESifo Working Paper Series 3806, CESifo Group Munich.
  3. Suma Athreye & Yong Yang, 2011. "Disembodied Knowledge Flows in the World Economy," WIPO Economic Research Working Papers 03, World Intellectual Property Organization - Economics and Statistics Division, revised Dec 2011.
  4. repec:wip:wpaper:3 is not listed on IDEAS
  5. Joseph F. Francois & B. Hoekman, 2009. "Services Trade and Policy," wiiw Working Papers 60, The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw.
  6. Elisabeth M. Christen & Joseph Francois & Bernard Hoekman, 2012. "CGE Modeling of Market Access in Services," Economics working papers 2012-08, Department of Economics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria.
  7. Martijn J. Burger & Mark Thissen & Frank G. van Oort & Dario Diodato, 2014. "The Magnitude and Distance Decay of Trade in Goods and Services: New Evidence for European Countries," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 14-031/VII, Tinbergen Institute.
  8. Marine George, 2013. "Does cross-border regulation really influence cross-border trade? Evidence from the Services Trade Restrictions Index," Post-Print dumas-00909960, HAL.
  9. Stefano Federico & Enrico Tosti, 2012. "Exporters and importers of services: firm-level evidence on Italy," Temi di discussione (Economic working papers) 877, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
  10. Francois, Joseph & Manchin, Miriam & Tomberger, Patrick, 2013. "Services linkages and the value added content of trade," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6432, The World Bank.

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