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Equality of Educational Ppportunity Employing PISA Data: Taking both Achievement and Access into Account

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  • Márcia de Carvalho

    ()
    (Departamento de Estatística and Centro de Estudos sobre Desigualdade e Desenvolvimento (CEDE), Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Brazil)

  • Luis Fernando Gamboa

    ()
    (Facultad de Economía, Universidad del Rosario, Colombia.)

  • Fábio D. Waltenberg

    ()
    (Departamento de Economia and Centro de Estudos sobre Desigualdade e Desenvolvimento (CEDE), Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Brazil)

Abstract

While PISA datasets have been used for measuring inequality of educational opportunity they have important limitations: (i) samples only cover a relatively limited fraction of developing countries’ cohorts of 15-year-olds, and (ii) such fractions are not uniform across countries and waves. This casts doubts on the reliability of such measures when used for international and intertemporal comparisons: a milder calculated inequality of opportunity in a given country at a given moment might simply be the artifact of a more restricted and homogeneous sample. Previous attempts of addressing this problem have focused on explicitly reconstructing full samples. Here an alternative path is followed, relying on bidimensional indices, in which equality of opportunity in achievement is the first dimension and equality of opportunity for access to the exam is the second one. We compute the two dimensions and aggregate them using alternative techniques. Employing PISA 2006/2009 data for six Latin-American countries we observe rank reversals when comparing results based upon our indices and those based upon conventional indices of equality of opportunity for achievement. We then generalize our approach allowing for more dimensions and parameterizing the dimensions’ weights.

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File URL: http://www.ecineq.org/milano/WP/ECINEQ2012-277.pdf
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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by ECINEQ, Society for the Study of Economic Inequality in its series Working Papers with number 277.

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Length: 24 pages
Date of creation: Nov 2012
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:inq:inqwps:ecineq2012-277

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Keywords: equality of opportunity; measurement of inequality of opportunity; multidimensional measures; PISA test scores; Latin America.Classification-JEL: I24; O54.;

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  1. Dinardo, J. & Fortin, N.M. & Lemieux, T., 1994. "Labor Market Institutions and the Distribution of Wages, 1973-1992: A Semiparametric Approach," Cahiers de recherche 9406, Centre interuniversitaire de recherche en économie quantitative, CIREQ.
  2. Ferreira, Francisco H. G. & Gignoux, Jeremie, 2011. "The measurement of educational inequality : achievement and opportunity," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5873, The World Bank.
  3. Luis Fernando Gamboa & Fábio D. Waltenberg, 2011. "Inequality of opportunity in educational achievement in Latin America: evidence from PISA 2006-2009," DOCUMENTOS DE TRABAJO 008895, UNIVERSIDAD DEL ROSARIO.
  4. Dunnzlaff, Lina & Neumann, Dirk & Niehues, Judith & Peichl, Andreas, 2010. "Equality of Opportunity and Redistribution in Europe," IZA Discussion Papers 5375, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
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