An European Distribution of Income Perspective on Portugal-EU Convergence
AbstractGrowth and real convergence in Portugal are usually analyzed after EU accession on January 1st 1986 based on real GDP per capita. There is however a lack of literature approaching the subject from an European distribution of income perspective and for a longer time period. We fill this gap by using all available time series information on real GDP per capita and population covering a longer period from 1950 until 2009 in order to get a broader picture of the convergence process. The analysis is based on the income distribution for the countries that compose the EU-14 group computed using each country’s mean income weighted by the respective population so that we have a distribution of income by individual. This cross-section distribution of income approach allows us to determine the shape of the distribution at each point in time and to study its evolution, and in this way to search for different convergence patterns, and thus analyze within a broader framework the Portuguese-EU convergence process. The results point to a bimodal EU-14 income distribution in 1950 and again in 2009, thus to two convergence clubs, and to two distinct convergence patterns over the whole period. From 1950 to 1974 convergence takes place, while from 1975 onwards it comes to a halt when considering the whole group. However, the same does not apply to Portugal from the 1980s until 2006, a country with a mean income lower than the EU-14 median income that continued to converge, although not necessarily due to European integration.
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Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by GEMF - Faculdade de Economia, Universidade de Coimbra in its series GEMF Working Papers with number 2012-11.
Length: 19 pages
Date of creation: Sep 2012
Date of revision:
real convergence; income distribution; ?-convergence; concentration and inequality measures;
Other versions of this item:
- João Sousa Andrade & Adelaide Duarte & Marta Simões, 2012. "A European Distribution of Income Perspective on Portugal-EU Convergence," Book Chapters, Institute of Economic Sciences.
- O15 - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Economic Development: Human Resources; Human Development; Income Distribution; Migration
- O52 - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economywide Country Studies - - - Europe
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2012-10-06 (All new papers)
- NEP-LTV-2012-10-06 (Unemployment, Inequality & Poverty)
- NEP-PBE-2012-10-06 (Public Economics)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Jonathan Haughton & Shahidur R. Khandker, 2009. "Handbook on Poverty and Inequality," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 11985, March.
- Branko Milanovic, 2012. "Global inequality recalculated and updated: the effect of new PPP estimates on global inequality and 2005 estimates," Journal of Economic Inequality, Springer, vol. 10(1), pages 1-18, March.
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