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Developing a research and action agenda for examining urbanization and caregiving

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  • Engle, Patrice L.
  • Menon, Purnima
  • Garrett, James L.
  • Slack, Alison T.

Abstract

The UNICEF-expanded model for nutrition is used to analyze the circumstances of care in urban environments. The model postulates that there are six major types of care behaviors: feeding and breast-feeding, food preparation and handling, hygiene behavior, psychosocial care, care for women, and home health practices. These behaviors require the resources of education and knowledge of the caregivers, the physical and mental health of caregivers, autonomy in decisionmaking, time availability, and the social support of the family and community in order to ensure adequate care for the child. This paper describes each of these constraints, and two of the behaviors (feeding and health care utilization) in urban and rural areas. Data from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) in eight countries in Eastern and Southern Africa were used to illustrate how existing data can be used to examine care, and what research questions remain to be addressed to understand care in the urban setting. A number of differences favor the urban environment over the rural environment: in general, child malnutrition is less (though this may not be true in poor urban areas), maternal education levels are higher, and knowledge of health care practices is greater. On the other hand, breast-feeding seems to be less frequent and of shorter duration. It is argued that care may be even more important in urban rather than rural settings for child health and survival in low-income neighborhoods. Caution is needed when comparing urban and rural areas, however, because there are often enormous care, health, and nutrition differences between poor-income and middle-to-high-income areas of cities. Through the application of the expanded UNICEF model, a research agenda was developed.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) in its series FCND discussion papers with number 28.

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Date of creation: 1997
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Handle: RePEc:fpr:fcnddp:28

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Keywords: Child Feeding. ; Food handling Africa. ; Urban health. ; Nutrition ; Urbanization Africa. ; Education Research. ; Child care. ;

References

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  1. Wolfe, Barbara L. & Behrman, Jere R., 1982. "Determinants of child mortality, health, and nutrition in a developing country," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 11(2), pages 163-193, October.
  2. David M. Blau & David K. Guilkey & Barry M. Popkin, 1996. "Infant Health and the Labor Supply of Mothers," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 31(1), pages 90-139.
  3. Castle, Sarah E., 1995. "Child fostering and children's nutritional outcomes in rural Mali: The role of female status in directing child transfers," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 40(5), pages 679-693, March.
  4. Mansbach, Ivonne Kleinfeld & Greenbaum, Charles W. & Sulkes, Jaqueline, 1991. "Onset and duration of breast feeding among Israeli mothers: Relationships with smoking and type of delivery," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 33(12), pages 1391-1397, January.
  5. Baksh, Michael & Neumann, Charlotte G. & Paolisso, Michael & Trostle, Richard M. & Jansen, A. A. J., 1994. "The influence of reproductive status on rural Kenyan women's time use," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 39(3), pages 345-354, August.
  6. Barrera, Albino, 1990. "The role of maternal schooling and its interaction with public health programs in child health production," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(1), pages 69-91, January.
  7. Cleland, John G. & van Ginneken, Jerome K., 1988. "Maternal education and child survival in developing countries: The search for pathways of influence," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 27(12), pages 1357-1368, January.
  8. Onyango, Adelheid & Tucker, Katherine & Eisemon, Thomas, 1994. "Household headship and child nutrition: A case study in Western Kenya," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 39(12), pages 1633-1639, December.
  9. Doan, Rebecca Miles & Popkin, Barry M., 1993. "Women's work and infant care in the Philippines," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 36(3), pages 297-304, February.
  10. Engle, Patrice L. & Castle, Sarah & Menon, Purnima, 1996. "Child development: Vulnerability and resilience," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 43(5), pages 621-635, September.
  11. Kennedy, Eileen & Peters, Pauline, 1992. "Household food security and child nutrition: the interaction of income and gender of household head," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 20(8), pages 1077-1085, August.
  12. Guldan, Georgia S. & Zeitlin, Marian F. & Beiser, Alexa S. & Super, Charles M. & Gershoff, Stanley N. & Datta, Sabita, 1993. "Maternal education and child feeding practices in rural Bangladesh," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 36(7), pages 925-935, April.
  13. Engle, Patrice L. & Menon, Purnima & Haddad, Lawrence, 1999. "Care and Nutrition: Concepts and Measurement," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 27(8), pages 1309-1337, August.
  14. Bryant, Carol Anne, 1982. "The impact of kin, friend and neighbor networks on infant feeding practices : Cuban, Puerto Rican and Anglo families in Florida," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 16(20), pages 1757-1765, January.
  15. Engle, Patrice L. & Menon, Purnima & Haddad, Lawrence James, 1996. "Care and nutrition," FCND discussion papers 18, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  16. Pitt, Mark M & Rosenzweig, Mark R, 1990. "Estimating the Intrahousehold Incidence of Illness: Child Health and Gender-Inequality in the Allocation of Time," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 31(4), pages 969-80, November.
  17. Engle, Patrice L. & Castle, Sarah & Menon, Purnima, 1996. "Child development," FCND discussion papers 12, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  18. Engle, Patrice L., 1993. "Influences of mothers' and fathers' income on children's nutritional status in Guatemala," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 37(11), pages 1303-1312, December.
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