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Desigualdade intergeracional de oportunidades educacionais: uma análise da matrícula e escolaridade das crianças brasileiras

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  • Letícia Marteleto

    (Cedeplar-UFMG)

Abstract

The high disparities on educational levels and opportunities are important determinants of social and economic inequalities in Brazil, which makes their investigation extremely important. Educational inequality occurs early on individuals' educational career in Brazil. It is therefore essential to study the determinants of educational outcomes at the early stages of educational career, due to the potential to reduce inequalities in current and future generations. Data from the national representative PNAD surveys from 1977 to 1999 are used with the goal of answering whether the base of the educational distribution has become more meritocratic during the last decades. The determinants of years of schooling and school enrollment for 1963 and 1983 cohorts - pre and post demography transition - are investigated for all the country. Coefficients from multivariate analyses are utilized for simulations and decompositions, with the purpose to understand the role of social origin in determining educational opportunities. The results show that children from younger cohorts aren't penalized in terms of their educational outcomes, as are the ones from older cohorts because of their mothers' low levels of schooling. Educational inequalities due to intergenerational transmission of education have decreased. Nevertheless, the role of social origin in determining educational levels has persisted.

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Paper provided by Cedeplar, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais in its series Textos para Discussão Cedeplar-UFMG with number td242.

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Length: 26 pages
Date of creation: Dec 2004
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Handle: RePEc:cdp:texdis:td242

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  1. Lam, David & Schoeni, Robert F, 1993. "Effects of Family Background on Earnings and Returns to Schooling: Evidence from Brazil," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, University of Chicago Press, vol. 101(4), pages 710-40, August.
  2. George Psacharopoulos & Harry Anthony Patrinos, 1997. "Family size, schooling and child labor in Peru - An empirical analysis," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, Springer, vol. 10(4), pages 387-405.
  3. Strauss, John & Thomas, Duncan, 1995. "Human resources: Empirical modeling of household and family decisions," Handbook of Development Economics, Elsevier, in: Hollis Chenery & T.N. Srinivasan (ed.), Handbook of Development Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 34, pages 1883-2023 Elsevier.
  4. Gary S. Becker, 1981. "A Treatise on the Family," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number beck81-1.
  5. William L. Parish & Robert J. Willis, 1993. "Daughters, Education, and Family Budgets Taiwan Experiences," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 28(4), pages 863-898.
  6. Chernichovsky, Dov, 1985. "Socioeconomic and Demographic Aspects of School Enrollment and Attendance in Rural Botswana," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, University of Chicago Press, vol. 33(2), pages 319-32, January.
  7. Lam, David & Levison, Deborah, 1991. "Declining inequality in schooling in Brazil and its effects on inequality in earnings," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 37(1-2), pages 199-225, November.
  8. David Lam & Suzanne Duryea, 1999. "Effects of Schooling on Fertility, Labor Supply, and Investments in Children, with Evidence from Brazil," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 34(1), pages 160-192.
  9. José Alberto Magno de Carvalho & Laura Rodríguez Wong, 1995. "A window of opportunity: some demographic and socioeconomic implications of the rapid fertility decline in Brazil," Textos para Discussão Cedeplar-UFMG, Cedeplar, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais td091, Cedeplar, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais.
  10. Deon Filmer & Lant Pritchett, 1999. "The Effect of Household Wealth on Educational Attainment: Evidence from 35 Countries," Population and Development Review, The Population Council, Inc., The Population Council, Inc., vol. 25(1), pages 85-120.
  11. Strauss, J. & Thomas, D., 1995. "Empirical Modeling of Household and Family Decisions," Papers, RAND - Reprint Series 95-12, RAND - Reprint Series.
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