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International Comparisons of R&D Expenditure: Does an R&D PPP Make a Difference?

In: Hard-to-Measure Goods and Services: Essays in Honor of Zvi Griliches

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Author Info

  • Sean M. Dougherty
  • Robert Inklaar
  • Robert H. McGuckin
  • Bart van Ark

Abstract

Purchasing power parities (PPPs) for R&D expenditure in 19 manufacturing industries are developed for France, Germany, Japan, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom relative to the United States for the years 1997 and 1987. These PPPs are based on R&D input prices for specific cost categories and differ substantially from current practice of comparing R&D expenditure using GDP PPPs and deflators. After taking into account differences in the relative price of R&D labor and materials, separate PPPs for other R&D cost categories are less essential, and a simpler version using GDP PPPs for these other categories should suffice. Our preferred PPPs are used to compare international R&D costs and intensity. The results suggest that the efforts devoted to R&D in each country are more similar across countries than is apparent using the nominal R&D intensities that are currently the norm.

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This chapter was published in:

  • Ernst R. Berndt & Charles R. Hulten, 2007. "Hard-to-Measure Goods and Services: Essays in Honor of Zvi Griliches," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number bern07-1, July.
    This item is provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Chapters with number 0881.

    Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberch:0881

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    1. Inklaar, Robert & Wu, Harry & Ark, Bart van, 2003. ""Losing ground" : Japanese labour productivity and unit laboour cost manufacturing in comparison to the U.S," GGDC Research Memorandum, Groningen Growth and Development Centre, University of Groningen 200364, Groningen Growth and Development Centre, University of Groningen.
    2. MacDonald, A S, 1973. "Exchange Rates for National Expenditure on Research and Development," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, Royal Economic Society, vol. 83(330), pages 477-94, June.
    3. Charles R. Hulten & Edwin R. Dean & Michael J. Harper, 2001. "New Developments in Productivity Analysis," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number hult01-1, July.
    4. David E. Lebow & Jeremy B. Rudd, 2003. "Measurement Error in the Consumer Price Index: Where Do We Stand?," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 41(1), pages 159-201, March.
    5. Hill, Robert J., 2003. "Constructing price indexes across space and time: the case of the European Union," GGDC Research Memorandum, Groningen Growth and Development Centre, University of Groningen 200362, Groningen Growth and Development Centre, University of Groningen.
    6. Charles R. Hulten, 2001. "Total Factor Productivity. A Short Biography," NBER Chapters, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, in: New Developments in Productivity Analysis, pages 1-54 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    7. Zvi Griliches, 1984. "R & D, Patents, and Productivity," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number gril84-1, July.
    8. Barbara M. Fraumeni & Sumiye Okubo, 2005. "R&D in the National Income and Product Accounts: A First Look at Its Effect on GDP," NBER Chapters, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, in: Measuring Capital in the New Economy, pages 275-322 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    9. DiMasi, Joseph A. & Hansen, Ronald W. & Grabowski, Henry G., 2003. "The price of innovation: new estimates of drug development costs," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 22(2), pages 151-185, March.
    10. Van Ark, B. & Gersbach, H., 1994. "Micro Foundations for International Productivity Comparisons," Papers, Groningen State, Institute of Economic Research- 572, Groningen State, Institute of Economic Research-.
    11. Robert H. McGuckin & Robert Inklaar & Bart van Ark & Sean M. Dougherty, 2004. "The Structure of Business R&D: Recent Trends and Measurement Implications," Economics Program Working Papers, The Conference Board, Economics Program 04-01, The Conference Board, Economics Program.
    12. Heston, Alan & Summers, Robert, 1996. "International Price and Quantity Comparisons: Potentials and Pitfalls," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 86(2), pages 20-24, May.
    13. Danzon, Patricia M. & Chao, Li-Wei, 2000. "Cross-national price differences for pharmaceuticals: how large, and why?," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 19(2), pages 159-195, March.
    14. Robert H. McGuckin & Bart van Ark & Sean M. Dougherty & Robert Inklaar, 2006. "Appendices to Internationally Comparable Science, Technology and Competitiveness Indicators," Economics Program Working Papers, The Conference Board, Economics Program 06-01, The Conference Board, Economics Program.
    15. Carol Corrado & John Haltiwanger & Dan Sichel, 2005. "Measuring Capital in the New Economy," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number corr05-1, July.
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    Cited by:
    1. Jakob Madsen, 2008. "Semi-endogenous versus Schumpeterian growth models: testing the knowledge production function using international data," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, Springer, vol. 13(1), pages 1-26, March.
    2. Robert H. McGuckin & Robert Inklaar & Bart van Ark & Sean M. Dougherty, 2004. "The Structure of Business R&D: Recent Trends and Measurement Implications," Economics Program Working Papers, The Conference Board, Economics Program 04-01, The Conference Board, Economics Program.
    3. Richard M. H. Suen, 2013. "Research Policy and U.S. Economic Growth," Working papers, University of Connecticut, Department of Economics 2013-18, University of Connecticut, Department of Economics.
    4. Sabine Visser, 2007. "R&D in Worldscan," CPB Memorandum, CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis 189, CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis.

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