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Are Spot Freight Rates Stationary?

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  • Steen Koekebakker
  • Roar Adland
  • Sigbjørn Sødal

Abstract

In the recent literature, empirical tests of stationarity of freight rates often conclude that spot freight rates are non-stationary processes. However, many maritime economists would argue that the freight rate cannot exhibit asymptotically explosive behaviour, as implied by non-stationarity, in a perfectly competitive freight market. This paper restates the theoretical arguments behind mean reversion and boundedness of the spot freight rate process and suggests that the failure to reject non-stationarity may be due to the weak power of the tests most frequently used. We employ a non-linear version of the Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) test, based on an exponentially smooth-transition autoregressive model (ESTAR). This test enhances the power against mean-reverting nonlinear alternative hypotheses compared to the linear alternative for traditional ADF tests. Our empirical results show, in line with maritime economic theory, that freight rates in both dry-bulk and tanker markets are non-linear stationary. © 2006 LSE and the University of Bath

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by London School of Economics and University of Bath in its journal Journal of Transport Economics and Policy.

Volume (Year): 40 (2006)
Issue (Month): 3 (September)
Pages: 449-472

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Handle: RePEc:tpe:jtecpo:v:40:y:2006:i:3:p:449-472

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Web page: http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep

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Cited by:
  1. Adland, Roar & Jia, Haiying & Lu, Jing, 2008. "Price dynamics in the market for Liquid Petroleum Gas transport," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(3), pages 818-828, May.
  2. Fotis Papailias & Dimitrios D. Thomakos, 2013. "The Baltic Dry Index: Cyclicalities, Forecasting and Hedging Strategies," Working Paper Series 65_13, The Rimini Centre for Economic Analysis.

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