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Foreign aid and export diversification in developing countries

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  • Jonathan Munemo

Abstract

This paper analyzes the effect of foreign aid on export diversification for a sample of developing countries while controlling for the effects of other factors that determine export diversification. We find that foreign aid not exceeding 20% of a country's GDP significantly promotes export diversification, while foreign aid in excess of 20% of GDP significantly impedes export diversification. The latter result corroborates evidence from related literature, which has shown that foreign aid can have an anti-export bias due to a Dutch disease effect. However, our results show that aid as a percent of GDP is below 20% in most low-income countries. This implies that in many low-income countries, varying amounts of additional aid can be used to enhance export diversification without causing a Dutch disease effect. As in the previous literature, we find that the level of development, infrastructure, transactions costs, and natural resources significantly affect export diversification. Our results are robust to the use of two different export diversification measures and different sub-samples.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Taylor & Francis Journals in its journal The Journal of International Trade & Economic Development.

Volume (Year): 20 (2011)
Issue (Month): 3 ()
Pages: 339-355

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Handle: RePEc:taf:jitecd:v:20:y:2011:i:3:p:339-355

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Related research

Keywords: foreign aid; export diversification; developing countries;

References

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  1. Raghuram G. Rajan, 2005. "Aid and Growth: What Does The Cross-Country Evidence Really Show?," Working Papers id:54, eSocialSciences.
  2. Habiyaremye, Alexis & Ziesemer, Thomas, 2006. "Absorptive Capacity and Export Diversification in Sub-Saharan African Countries," MERIT Working Papers 030, United Nations University - Maastricht Economic and Social Research Institute on Innovation and Technology (MERIT).
  3. Federico Bonaglia & Kichiro Fukasaku, 2003. "Export Diversification In Low-Income Countries: An International Challenge After Doha," Development and Comp Systems 0307001, EconWPA.
  4. Younger, Stephen D., 1992. "Aid and the Dutch disease: Macroeconomic management when everybody loves you," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 20(11), pages 1587-1597, November.
  5. Raghuram G. Rajan & Arvind Subramanian, 2005. "What Undermines Aid's Impact on Growth?," NBER Working Papers 11657, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  6. Jean Imbs & Romain Wacziarg, 2003. "Stages of Diversification," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 93(1), pages 63-86, March.
  7. Jens Andersson & Federico Bonaglia & Kiichiro Fukasaku & Caroline Lesser, 2005. "Trade And Structural Adjustment Policies In Selected Developing Countries," Development and Comp Systems 0507003, EconWPA.
  8. Paul Collier & Jan Willem Gunning, 1998. "Explaining African economic performance," Economics Series Working Papers WPS/1997-02.2, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
  9. Jonathan Munemo & Subhayu Bandyopadhyay & Arabinda Basistha, 2007. "Foreign aid and export performance: a panel data analysis of developing countries," Working Papers 2007-023, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis.
  10. Subhayu Bandyopadhyay, 2006. "The Determinants of Aid in the Post-Cold War Era," Working Papers 06-14 Classification- JEL, Department of Economics, West Virginia University.
  11. Alberto Alesina & David Dollar, 1998. "Who Gives Foreign Aid to Whom and Why?," NBER Working Papers 6612, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  12. Dani Rodrik, 1995. "Why is there Multilateral Lending?," NBER Working Papers 5160, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  13. Boone, Peter, 1996. "Politics and the effectiveness of foreign aid," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 40(2), pages 289-329, February.
  14. Osakwe, Patrick N., 2007. "Foreign Aid, Resources and Export Diversification in Africa: A New Test of Existing Theories," MPRA Paper 2228, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  15. Burnside, Craig & Dollar, David, 1997. "Aid, policies, and growth," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1777, The World Bank.
  16. Wood, Adrian & Mayer, Jorg, 2001. "Africa's Export Structure in a Comparative Perspective," Cambridge Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 25(3), pages 369-94, May.
  17. White, Howard & Wignaraja, Ganeshan, 1992. "Exchange rates, trade liberalization and aid: The Sri Lankan experience," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 20(10), pages 1471-1480, October.
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Cited by:
  1. Philipp Hühne & Birgit Meyer & Peter Nunnenkamp, 2013. "Who Benefits from Aid for Trade? Comparing the Effects on Recipient versus Donor Exports," Kiel Working Papers 1852, Kiel Institute for the World Economy.

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