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The Relationship Between External Debt, Defence Expenditures And Gnp Revisited: The Case Of Turkey

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  • Erdal Karagol

Abstract

This paper extends the Looney and Frederiksen (1986) study and investigates the relationship among external debt, defence expenditures and GNP in Turkey for 1960-2002. After applying cointegration analysis of a multivariate system of equations, impulse response functions and variance decomposition are estimated. The impulse response functions indicate that defence expenditures have a positive effect on external debt stock. Moreover, impulse response of GNP to defence expenditures tended to hike slightly within two years ahead, and dipped sharply by two years, and thereafter continued at a positive level.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Taylor & Francis Journals in its journal Defence and Peace Economics.

Volume (Year): 17 (2006)
Issue (Month): 1 ()
Pages: 47-57

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Handle: RePEc:taf:defpea:v:17:y:2006:i:1:p:47-57

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Related research

Keywords: External debt; Defence expenditures; GNP; Turkey;

References

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  1. Erdal Karagol, 2005. "Defence expenditures and external debt in Turkey," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 16(2), pages 117-125.
  2. Erdal Karagol, 2002. "The Causality Analysis of External Debt Service and GNP : The Case of Turkey," Central Bank Review, Research and Monetary Policy Department, Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey, vol. 2(1), pages 39-64.
  3. Borensztein, Eduardo, 1990. "Debt overhang, credit rationing and investment," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(2), pages 315-335, April.
  4. Selami Sezgin, 2004. "An empirical note on external debt and defence expenditures in Turkey," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 15(2), pages 199-203.
  5. Catherine Pattillo & Hélène Poirson & Luca Antonio Ricci, 2011. "External Debt and Growth," Review of Economics and Institutions, Università di Perugia, vol. 2(3).
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Cited by:
  1. Andreou Andreas S. & Zombanakis George A. & Migiakis Petros M., 2013. "On Defence Expenditure Reduction: Balancing Between Austerity and Security in Greece," Peace Economics, Peace Science, and Public Policy, De Gruyter, vol. 19(3), pages 437-458, December.
  2. Muhammad, Shahbaz & Nuno, Carlos Leitão & Ghazi, Salah Uddin, 2012. "Should Portuguese Economy Invest in Defense Spending? A Revisit," MPRA Paper 42289, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 26 Oct 2012.
  3. Chen, Pei-Fen & Lee, Chien-Chiang & Chiu, Yi-Bin, 2014. "The nexus between defense expenditure and economic growth: New global evidence," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 36(C), pages 474-483.
  4. Tiwari, Aviral & Shahbaz, Muhammad, 2011. "Does Defence Spending Stimulate Economic Growth in India?," MPRA Paper 30880, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 18 Apr 2011.
  5. Muhammad Shahbaz & Talat Afza & Muhammad Shahbaz Shabbir, 2013. "Does Defence Spending Impede Economic Growth? Cointegration And Causality Analysis For Pakistan," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 24(2), pages 105-120, April.
  6. Yemane Wolde-Rufael, 2009. "The Defence Spending-External Debt Nexus In Ethiopia," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 20(5), pages 423-436.
  7. Shahbaz, Muhammad & Shabbir, Shahbaz Muhammad & Butt, Muhammad Sabihuddin, 2011. "Does Military Spending Explode External Debt in Pakistan?," MPRA Paper 30429, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 21 Apr 2011.
  8. Paresh Kumar Narayan & Russell Smyth, 2007. "The Military Expenditure-External Debt Nexus: New Evidence From A Panel Of Middle Eastern Countries," Development Research Unit Working Paper Series 17-07, Monash University, Department of Economics.

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