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Examining impulse response functions in cointegrated systems

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  • Atsuyuki Naka
  • David Tufte

Abstract

A system of reduced forms with cointegrated variables may be estimated in two ways: as a vector autoregression in levels, or as a vector error correction model. The latter is a restricted version of the former. If there is cointegration, imposing this restriction will yield more efficient estimates. However, at short horizons, vector error correction estimates are known to perform poorly relative to those from a vector autoregression. We examine how this property affects impulse response functions. A Monte Carlo experiment, and an example, suggest that impulse response functions of the two models are similar at short horizons, but different at long horizons. This suggests that the loss of efficiency from vector autoregression estimation is not critical at the commonly used short horizon. Our results complement parallel arguments focusing on forecast errors made by Clements and Hendry (1995), Hoffman and Rasche (1996), and Lin and Tsay (1996).

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Taylor & Francis Journals in its journal Applied Economics.

Volume (Year): 29 (1997)
Issue (Month): 12 ()
Pages: 1593-1603

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Handle: RePEc:taf:applec:v:29:y:1997:i:12:p:1593-1603

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  1. Toda, Hiro Y. & Yamamoto, Taku, 1995. "Statistical inference in vector autoregressions with possibly integrated processes," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 66(1-2), pages 225-250.
  2. Hoffman, Dennis L & Rasche, Robert H, 1996. "Assessing Forecast Performance in a Cointegrated System," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 11(5), pages 495-517, Sept.-Oct.
  3. Sims, Christopher A, 1980. "Comparison of Interwar and Postwar Business Cycles: Monetarism Reconsidered," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 70(2), pages 250-57, May.
  4. Spencer, David E, 1989. "Does Money Matter? The Robustness of Evidence from Vector Autoregressions," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 21(4), pages 442-54, November.
  5. Engle, Robert F. & Yoo, Byung Sam, 1987. "Forecasting and testing in co-integrated systems," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 35(1), pages 143-159, May.
  6. Lutkepohl, Helmut & Reimers, Hans-Eggert, 1992. "Impulse response analysis of cointegrated systems," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 16(1), pages 53-78, January.
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