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More on Money as a Medium of Exchange

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  • Kehoe, Timothy J
  • Kiyotaki, Nobuhiro
  • Wright, Randall

Abstract

We extend the analysis of Kiyotaki and Wright, who study economies where the commodities that serve as media of exchange (or, commodity money) are determined endogenously. Kiyotaki and Wright consider only steady-state, pure-strategy equilibria; here we allow dynamic and mixed-strategy equilibria. We demonstrate that symmetric, steady-state equilibria in mixed-strategies always exist, while sometimes no such equilibria exist in pure-strategies. We prove that the number of symmetric steady-state equilibria is generically finite. We also show, however, that for some parameter values there exists a continuum of dynamic equilibria. Further, some equilibria display cycles.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Springer in its journal Economic Theory.

Volume (Year): 3 (1993)
Issue (Month): 2 (April)
Pages: 297-314

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Handle: RePEc:spr:joecth:v:3:y:1993:i:2:p:297-314

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References

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  1. Jovanovic, Boyan & Rosenthal, Robert W., 1986. "Anonymous Sequential Games," Working Papers 86-12, C.V. Starr Center for Applied Economics, New York University.
  2. Balasko, Yves & Cass, David & Shell, Karl, 1980. "Existence of competitive equilibrium in a general overlapping-generations model," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 23(3), pages 307-322, December.
  3. Kehoe, Timothy J & Levine, David K, 1985. "Comparative Statics and Perfect Foresight in Infinite Horizon Economies," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 53(2), pages 433-53, March.
  4. Kiyotaki, Nobuhiro & Wright, Randall, 1989. "On Money as a Medium of Exchange," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 97(4), pages 927-54, August.
  5. Azariadis, Costas & Guesnerie, Roger, 1986. "Sunspots and Cycles," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 53(5), pages 725-37, October.
  6. Benhabib, Jess & Day, Richard H., 1982. "A characterization of erratic dynamics in, the overlapping generations model," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 4(1), pages 37-55, November.
  7. Ken Burdett & Randall Wright, 1998. "Two-Sided Search with Nontransferable Utility," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 1(1), pages 220-245, January.
  8. S. Rao Aiyagari & Neil Wallace, 1991. "Existence of steady states with positive consumption in the Kiyotaki-Wright model," Working Papers 428, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.
  9. Kehoe, Timothy J. & Levine, David K., 1984. "Regularity in overlapping generations exchange economies," Journal of Mathematical Economics, Elsevier, vol. 13(1), pages 69-93, April.
  10. Grandmont Jean-michel, 1983. "On endogenous competitive business cycles," CEPREMAP Working Papers (Couverture Orange) 8316, CEPREMAP.
  11. Kehoe, Timothy J, 1985. "Multiplicity of Equilibria and Comparative Statics," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 100(1), pages 119-47, February.
  12. Kiyotaki, N. & Wright, R., 1990. "Search For A Theory Of Money," Working papers 90-15, Wisconsin Madison - Social Systems.
  13. Aiyagari, S Rao & Wallace, Neil, 1992. "Fiat Money in the Kiyotaki-Wright Model," Economic Theory, Springer, vol. 2(4), pages 447-64, October.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Ezra Oberfield & Nicholas Trachter, 2010. "Commodity Money with Frequent Search," EIEF Working Papers Series 1023, Einaudi Institute for Economics and Finance (EIEF), revised Nov 2010.
  2. Gabriele Camera, 2001. "Search, Dealers, and the Terms of Trade," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 4(3), pages 680-694, July.
  3. Aiyagari, S Rao & Wallace, Neil, 1991. "Existence of Steady States with Positive Consumption in the Kiyotaki-Wright Model," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 58(5), pages 901-16, October.
  4. Ellingsen, Tore, 1998. "Payments in Kind," Working Paper Series in Economics and Finance 244, Stockholm School of Economics, revised 10 Feb 2000.
  5. Luo, Guo Ying, 1998. "The evolution of money as a medium of exchange," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 23(3), pages 415-458, November.
  6. Wright, Randall, 1995. "Search, evolution, and money," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 19(1-2), pages 181-206.
  7. Nobuhiro Kiyotaki & Randall Wright, 1990. "Search for a Theory of Money," NBER Working Papers 3482, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  8. Melvyn Cole & Randall Wright, . "A Dynamic Equilibrium Model of Search, Bargaining, and Money," CARESS Working Papres 97-9, University of Pennsylvania Center for Analytic Research and Economics in the Social Sciences.
  9. Peter Rupert & Martin Schindler & Andrei Shevchenko & Randall Wright, 2000. "The search-theoretic approach to monetary economics: a primer," Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland, issue Q IV, pages 10-28.
  10. Brown, Paul M., 1996. "Experimental evidence on money as a medium of exchange," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 20(4), pages 583-600, April.
  11. Williamson, Stephen D. & Wright, Randall, 2010. "New Monetarist Economics: Models," MPRA Paper 21030, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  12. Juan-Manuel Renero, 2000. "May the Worst Commodity Standard be the Best? A Re-enactment of "The Crimes of 1873"," Econometric Society World Congress 2000 Contributed Papers 1522, Econometric Society.
  13. de O. Cavalcanti, Ricardo & Puzzello, Daniela, 2009. "Stationarity without Degeneracy in a Model of Commodity Money," MPRA Paper 17125, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  14. Sethi, Rajiv, 1999. "Evolutionary stability and media of exchange," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 40(3), pages 233-254, November.
  15. Phillip M Johnson, 2002. "Essays on Capital Markets: Frictions and Social Forces," Levine's Working Paper Archive 618897000000000052, David K. Levine.
  16. Bilge Ozturk, 2003. "An evolutionary model of the emergence of the media of exchange," Working Papers hal-00242982, HAL.
  17. Jack Ochs & John Duffy, 1999. "Emergence of Money as a Medium of Exchange: An Experimental Study," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 89(4), pages 847-877, September.

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