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L’impact des transferts publics et des taxes sur la pauvreté au Canada et aux États-Unis

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  • Makdissi, Paul

    (Département d’économique)

  • Therrien, Yannick

    (Direction de la recherche et de la planification)

  • Wodon, Quentin

    (AFTPM)

Abstract

In this paper, we analyze the impact of public transfers on poverty in Canada and the US using the Luxemburg Income Study data base. The main difficulty is the fact that the impact of any one given transfer on poverty depends on whether one considers the other transfers as part of the income aggregate or not. In order to deal with this issue, we rely on the Shapley method in order to allocate a proper share of the overall impact on poverty of the transfers as a whole to each of the transfers taken individually. The results suggest that poverty is higher in the US than in Canada, in large part because public transfers are more generous in Canada. The results also suggest that transfers to the elderly have the largest total impact on poverty in both countries. Dans cet article, nous analysons l’impact des politiques de transferts publics sur la pauvreté au Canada et aux États-Unis à l’aide de la base de données du Luxembourg Income Study. Pour ce faire, nous utilisons une méthode basée sur la valeur de Shapley afin de pouvoir attribuer à chaque politique un impact sur la pauvreté qui est indépendant de l’ordre arbitraire dans laquelle on aurait pu la considérer. Nous constatons que la pauvreté est plus élevée aux États-Unis qu’au Canada. Ceci est principalement dû au fait que les politiques de transferts au Canada sont plus généreuses qu’aux États-Unis. Nous montrons aussi que la principale source de réduction de la pauvreté dans les deux pays provient des transferts vers les personnes âgées.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Société Canadienne de Science Economique in its journal L'Actualité économique.

Volume (Year): 82 (2006)
Issue (Month): 3 (septembre)
Pages: 377-394

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Handle: RePEc:ris:actuec:v:82:y:2006:i:3:p:377-394

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Web page: http://www.scse.ca/
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  1. Cutler, David M & Katz, Lawrence F, 1992. "Rising Inequality? Changes in the Distribution of Income and Consumption in the 1980's," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 82(2), pages 546-51, May.
  2. Lars Osberg, 2000. "Poverty in Canada and the United States: measurement, trends, and implications," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 33(4), pages 847-877, November.
  3. Rebecca M. Blank & Maria J. Hanratty, 1993. "Responding to Need: A Comparison of Social Safety Nets in Canada and the United States," NBER Chapters, in: Small Differences That Matter: Labor Markets and Income Maintenance in Canada and the United States, pages 191-232 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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Cited by:
  1. Bibi, Sami & Duclos, Jean-Yves, 2008. "A Comparison of the Poverty Impact of Transfers, Taxes and Market Income across Five OECD Countries," IZA Discussion Papers 3824, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  2. Pene Kalulumia & Denis Bolduc, 2004. "Generalized Mixed Estimation Of A Multinomial Discretecontinuous Choice Model For Electricity Demand," Cahiers de recherche 04-01, Departement d'Economique de la Faculte d'administration à l'Universite de Sherbrooke.
  3. Mathieu Audet & Paul Makdissi, 2009. "Assessing the impact of historical changes in social protection on poverty in Canada," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 16(5), pages 523-526.
  4. Petr Hanel, 2003. "Impact Of Government Support Programs On Innovation By Canadian Manufacturing Firms," Cahiers de recherche 04-02, Departement d'Economique de la Faculte d'administration à l'Universite de Sherbrooke.

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