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La détermination des salaires des policiers municipaux au Québec

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  • Cousineau, Jean-Michel

    (École de relations industrielles, Université de Montréal)

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    Abstract

    The question of the determinants of public employees wages emerged dramatically through the late sixties up to the beginning of the nineteen eighties. This article examines the particular case of the municipal police services in Quebec. The study mainly focuses on the factors which affect the supply and demand of such a particular category of workers. La question de la détermination des salaires pour les employés du secteur public a connu une émergence particulière au cours des années 1970 et au début des années 1980. Cet article s’inscrit dans cette problématique générale et s’applique au cas des policiers municipaux du Québec. D’un point de vue théorique, bien qu’elle puisse aisément s’accommoder d’une approche plus institutionnelle de la négociation collective, l’étude se concentre sur les facteurs susceptibles d’influencer l’offre et la demande de cette catégorie particulière de la main-d’oeuvre. Les principaux facteurs théoriques mis en cause pour expliquer les écarts intermunicipaux dans le salaire des policiers municipaux sont les écarts dans 1) la pénibilité du travail, 2) son degré de complexité, 3) son degré d’exposition à des situations violentes (stress), 4) le salaire alternatif, 5) le coût de la vie, 6) les goûts et les besoins de protection policière de la part de la population, 7) la capacité de payer des municipalités et 8) la productivité relative des policiers. Un modèle économétrique (analyse de régression linéaire) s’appuyant sur un échantillon de 35 municipalités de diverses tailles et régions du Québec a été développé afin de savoir lesquels de ces facteurs expliquent la réalité des écarts intermunicipaux. Dans l’ensemble, les résultats d’estimation supportent largement les appréhensions théoriques en matière de différences dans les conditions physiques et psychologiques de travail, de capacité de payer et de salaire alternatif. De ce fait, il nous apparaît que cet ensemble de critères mérite d’être considéré dans le processus des négociations salariales ainsi qu’au moment des nombreux arbitrages de différends qui caractérisent ce secteur d’activité.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Société Canadienne de Science Economique in its journal L'Actualité économique.

    Volume (Year): 60 (1984)
    Issue (Month): 2 (juin)
    Pages: 186-199

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    Handle: RePEc:ris:actuec:v:60:y:1984:i:2:p:186-199

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    1. Ehrlich, Isaac, 1973. "Participation in Illegitimate Activities: A Theoretical and Empirical Investigation," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 81(3), pages 521-65, May-June.
    2. Orley Ashenfelter, 1970. "The Effect of Unionization on Wages in the Public Sector: The Case of Fire Fighters," Working Papers 394, Princeton University, Department of Economics, Industrial Relations Section..
    3. Ehrenberg, Ronald G. & Goldstein, Gerald S., 1975. "A model of public sector wage determination," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 2(3), pages 223-245, July.
    4. Gary S. Becker, 1974. "Crime and Punishment: An Economic Approach," NBER Chapters, in: Essays in the Economics of Crime and Punishment, pages 1-54 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    5. Peter Kennedy, 2003. "A Guide to Econometrics, 5th Edition," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 5, volume 1, number 026261183x, December.
    6. Bartel, Ann & Lewin, David, 1981. "Wages and Unionism in the Public Sector: The Case of Police," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 63(1), pages 53-59, February.
    7. James L. Freund, 1974. "Market and union influences on municipal employee wages," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 27(3), pages 391-404, April.
    8. Schmenner, Roger W, 1973. "The Determination of Municipal Employee Wages," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 55(1), pages 83-90, February.
    9. Sherwin Rosen, 1983. "The Equilibrium Approach to Labor Markets," NBER Working Papers 1165, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    10. Low, Stuart A & McPheters, Lee R, 1983. "Wage Differentials and Risk of Death: An Empirical Analysis," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 21(2), pages 271-80, April.
    11. Ronald G. Ehrenberg, 1973. "Municipal government structure, unionization, and the wages of fire fighters," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 27(1), pages 36-48, October.
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