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L'impact des incitations financières au travail sur les comportements individuels : une estimation pour le cas français

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  • Thomas Piketty

Abstract

[fre] L'impact des incitations financières au travail sur les comportements individuels : une estimation pour le cas français . par Thomas Piketty . Rendre les emplois à bas salaires financièrement plus attractifs pour les personnes privées d'emploi aurait-il un effet positif significatif sur le niveau d'emploi en France ? À partir des données individuelles des enquêtes Emploi conduites par l'Insee de 1982 à 1997 (environ 150000 observations par an), nous utilisons le fait que différentes réformes du système français de transferts sociaux entre 1982 et 1996 (création du RMI, création et extension de 1' APE,..) ont modifié les incitations financières au travail de façon différente suivant le nombre d'enfants à charge, la situation familiale, etc., pour étudier si le différentiel de taux d'emploi entre ces différentes catégories de personnes s'est ajusté à ces nouvelles incitations, toutes autres choses (observables) égales par ailleurs. Cette méthodologie, utilisée récemment pour l'étude de YETTC américain et lors d'expériences naturelles au Canada, permet en principe une estimation non biaisée de l'élasticité des comportements d'activité et de recherche d'emploi vis-à-vis des incitations financières. . Les résultats obtenus suggèrent des élasticités relativement élevées pour les femmes (avec ou sans enfants à charge). Par contre, les données utilisées ne permettent pas de mettre en évidence un effet significatif des incitations financières au travail sur la transition non emploi - emploi pour les hommes. [eng] Impact of Financial Incentives to Work on Individual Behaviour: An Estimation for France . by Thomas Piketty . Does making low-paid jobs more financially attractive for the jobless have a significant positive impact on employment levels in France? Various reforms introduced in France's social transfers system between 1982 and 1996 have changed the financial incentives to work for various categories of population, depending on the number of dependent children, family structure and other factors. We use individual data from the INSEE employment surveys conducted from 1982 to 1997 (involving some 150,000 observations each year) to see if the new incentives introduced by these reforms, such as the income support benefit (RMI) and first job allowance (APE), have led to adjustments in the differential employment levels of these various population groups, all other (observable) things being equal. This methodology has recently been used for the American Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) Survey and in natural experiments in Canada. In principle, it enables us to make an unbiased estimate of the elasticity of labour force participation and job-seeking behaviour in relation to financial incentives. . The findings suggest that elasticity is relatively greater for women (with or without dependent children). On the other hand, the data used do not enable us to show any significant effect of financial incentives to work on men's transition from non-employment to employment.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Programme National Persée in its journal Économie & prévision.

Volume (Year): 132 (1998)
Issue (Month): 1 ()
Pages: 1-35

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Handle: RePEc:prs:ecoprv:ecop_0249-4744_1998_num_132_1_5895

Note: DOI:10.3406/ecop.1998.5895
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Web page: http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/revue/ecop

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  1. François Bourguignon & Thierry Magnac, 1990. "Labor Supply and Taxation in France," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 25(3), pages 358-389.
  2. David Card & Philip Robins, 1996. "Do Financial Incentives Encourage Welfare Recipients to Work? Early Findings from the Canadian Self Sufficiency Project," Working Papers 738, Princeton University, Department of Economics, Industrial Relations Section..
  3. Eissa, Nada & Liebman, Jeffrey B, 1996. "Labor Supply Response to the Earned Income Tax Credit," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 111(2), pages 605-37, May.
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Cited by:
  1. C. Afsa & S. Buffeteau, 2005. "Female labor force participation in France: a cohort analysis," Documents de Travail de la DESE - Working Papers of the DESE g2005-02, Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques, DESE.
  2. Antoine Terracol, 2009. "Guaranteed minimum income and unemployment duration in France," Université Paris1 Panthéon-Sorbonne (Post-Print and Working Papers) hal-00607219, HAL.
  3. François Legendre & Jean-Paul Lorgnet & Florence Thibault, 2003. "La distribution des incitations financières au travail en France : l’évaluation du modèle Myriade," Économie et Prévision, Programme National Persée, vol. 160(4), pages 23-48.
  4. Gilbert Cette & Nicolas Dromel & Dominique Méda, 2005. "Conciliation entre vies professionnelle et familiale et renoncements à l'enfant," Revue de l'OFCE, Presses de Sciences-Po, vol. 92(1), pages 263-313.
  5. repec:hal:wpaper:halshs-00586292 is not listed on IDEAS
  6. Yves De Curraize & Hélène Périvier-Timbeau, 2006. "Offre de travail des mères isolées : retour sur l’introduction de l’allocation de parent isolé en 1976," Sciences Po publications n°2006-17, Sciences Po.
  7. Gaël Dupont & Henri Sterdyniak & Jacques Le & Vincent Touzé, 2000. "La réforme fiscale en France : bilan et perspectives," Revue de l'OFCE, Presses de Sciences-Po, vol. 0(4), pages 183-242.
  8. repec:spo:wpecon:info:hdl:2441/2202 is not listed on IDEAS
  9. David Spector, 2001. "Emploi : une analyse critique des politiques malthusiennes," Économie et Prévision, Programme National Persée, vol. 150(4), pages 13-31.
  10. Hélène Périvier-Timbeau, 2008. "Les femmes sur le marché du travail aux Etats-Unis," Sciences Po publications 2008-12, Sciences Po.
  11. Stancanelli, Elena G.F., 2008. "Evaluating the impact of the French tax credit on the employment rate of women," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 92(10-11), pages 2036-2047, October.
  12. Marc Gurgand & David Margolis, 2008. "Does Work Pay in France? Monetary Incentives, Hours Constraints and the Guaranteed Minimum Income," Université Paris1 Panthéon-Sorbonne (Post-Print and Working Papers) halshs-00202299, HAL.
  13. Hélène Périvier, 2008. "Les femmes sur le marché du travail aux États-Unis," Documents de Travail de l'OFCE 2008-12, Observatoire Francais des Conjonctures Economiques (OFCE).
  14. Olivier Guillot, 2004. "Choix d’activité des mères vivant en couple et recours aux services de garde d’enfants," Économie et Prévision, Programme National Persée, vol. 162(1), pages 51-69.
  15. Muriel Pucci & Hélène Zajdela, 2004. "Quel loisir pour les allocataires du RMI ? L'arbitrage consommation/loisir revisité," Cahiers de la Maison des Sciences Economiques r04106, Université Panthéon-Sorbonne (Paris 1).

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