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Le marché du travail et l'évolution des salaires dans le transport aérien aux États-Unis : l'effet de la déréglementation de 1978

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  • Pierre-Yves Crémieux
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    Abstract

    [eng] The Effect of the 1978 Deregulation on the Air Transport Labour Market and Wages in the United States . by Pierre- Yves Crémieux . This study compares observed earnings with'simulated values to show that the deregulation of air traffic in 1978 had very different effects on pilots, engineers and flight attendants. . Deregulation had no statistically significant effect on engineers' wages. However, the representative flight attendant's earnings decreased by at least 12% from 1978 to 1985 ajnd by at least 39% from 1978 to 1992 compared with what they would have been had there been no deregulation. Pilots' earnihgSjwere 12% lower in 1985 and 22% less in 1992 than they would have been if air traffic had not be deregulated. Engineers' earhijlgs* were more resistant due to the fact that their skills can be more easily transferred and the rriose firnited rents tha't they had accumulated before deregulation. . When the effects of deregulation are combined with the effects of the 1982 American recession and the changes in the industrial relations environrnent to the United States to 1980s, the deviation between the predicted values and the simulated values widens signification for the engineers and the pilots, but remains the same for the flight attendants. [fre] Le marché du travail et l'évolution des salaires dans le transport aérien aux États-Unis : . l'effet de la déréglementation de 1978 par Pierre- Yves Crémieux . En comparant les revenus observés avec des valeurs simulées, cette étude montre que les pilotes, les mécaniciens, et les agents de bord ont été affectés de façon très différente par la déréglementation du trafic aérien de 1978. . La déréglementation n'a pas eu d'effet statistiquement significatif sur les salaires des mécaniciens. Par contre, l'agent de bord représentatif a vu son revenu diminuer d'au moins 12 % entre 1978 et 1985 et d'au moins 39 % entre 1978 et 1992 par rapport à ce qu'il aurait été si la déréglementation n'avait pas eu lieu. Les revenus des pilotes étaient 12 et 22 % plus bas en 1985 et 1992 respectivement que si la déréglementation n'avait pas eu lieu. Les revenus des mécaniciens ont mieux résisté en raison de la plus grande transférabilité de leurs qualifications et des rentes plus limitées qu'ils avaient accumulées avant la déréglementation. Lorsqu'on additionne les effets de la déréglementation avec ceux de la récession américaine de 1982 et les changements dans le climat des relations industrielles aux États-Unis dans les années quatre-vingts, l'écart entre les valeurs prédites et les valeurs simulées s'accroît de façon significative pour les mécaniciens et les pilotes mais reste le même pour les agents de bord.

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    File URL: http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.3406/ecop.1996.5822
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    File URL: http://www.persee.fr/articleAsPDF/ecop_0249-4744_1996_num_126_5_5822/ecop_0249-4744_1996_num_126_5_5822.pdf?mode=light
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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Programme National Persée in its journal Économie & prévision.

    Volume (Year): 126 (1996)
    Issue (Month): 5 ()
    Pages: 45-61

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    Handle: RePEc:prs:ecoprv:ecop_0249-4744_1996_num_126_5_5822

    Note: DOI:10.3406/ecop.1996.5822
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    Web page: http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/revue/ecop

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    1. William T. Dickens, 1986. "Wages, Employment and the Threat of Collective Action by Workers," NBER Working Papers 1856, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    2. Hendricks, Wallace, 1975. "Labor Market Structure and Union Wage Levels," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 13(3), pages 401-16, September.
    3. Moore, Thomas Gale, 1986. "U.S. Airline Deregulation: Its Effects on Passengers, Capital, and Labor," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 29(1), pages 1-28, April.
    4. Rose, Nancy L, 1987. "Labor Rent Sharing and Regulation: Evidence from the Trucking Industry," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 95(6), pages 1146-78, December.
    5. Akerlof, George A, 1982. "Labor Contracts as Partial Gift Exchange," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 97(4), pages 543-69, November.
    6. Bailey, Elizabeth E & Williams, Jeffrey R, 1988. "Sources of Economic Rent in the Deregulated Airline Industry," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 31(1), pages 173-202, April.
    7. Herbert R. Northrup, 1983. "The new employee-relations climate in airlines," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 36(2), pages 167-181, January.
    8. Kahn, Alfred E, 1988. "Surprises of Airline Deregulation," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 78(2), pages 316-22, May.
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