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Redistributive Impact of GST Tax Reform: Pakistan, 1990-2001

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  • Saadia Refaqat

    (Department of Economics and International Development, University of Bath, UK.)

Abstract

This paper assesses the welfare impact of GST reform on Pakistani households between 1990 and 2001, a period that coincides with major GST reforms that have increased GST contribution to total tax revenue from 15 percent to 42 percent. As well as the tax burden having increased, we find that the distributional incidence has worsened; GST after-reform impact on welfare is proportional as compared to slight progressivity in the before-reform period. Our results, based on distributional characteristics developed by Feldstein (1972) and recently used by Newbery (1995), show that the welfare of the poor households has been reduced due to taxation of items such as sugar, vegetable ghee, and basic fuels, whereas rich households remain comparatively better off because most of the services remain out of GST tax net.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Pakistan Institute of Development Economics in its journal The Pakistan Development Review.

Volume (Year): 44 (2005)
Issue (Month): 4 ()
Pages: 841-862

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Handle: RePEc:pid:journl:v:44:y:2005:i:4:p:841-862

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  1. Besley, Timothy J. & Rosen, Harvey S., 1999. "Sales Taxes and Prices: An Empirical Analysis," National Tax Journal, National Tax Association, vol. 52(n. 2), pages 157-78, June.
  2. Shahnaz Kazi, 1984. "Intersectoral Tax Burdens in Pakistan.A Critical Review of Existing Evidence and Some New Estimates," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 23(4), pages 553-572.
  3. Angus Deaton & Salman Zaidi, 2002. "Guidelines for Constructing Consumption Aggregates for Welfare Analysis," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 14101.
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  5. Paolo Liberati, 2001. "The Distributional Effects of Indirect Tax Changes in Italy," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer, vol. 8(1), pages 27-51, January.
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  7. Mieszkowski, Peter, 1969. "Tax Incidence Theory: The Effects of Taxes on the Distribution of Income," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 7(4), pages 1103-24, December.
  8. Charles L. Ballard & Don Fullerton & John B. Shoven & John Whalley, 1985. "A General Equilibrium Model for Tax Policy Evaluation," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number ball85-1, January.
  9. Saadia Refaqat, 2003. "Social Incidence of the General Sales Tax in Pakistan," IMF Working Papers 03/216, International Monetary Fund.
  10. A. Lans Bovenberg, 1987. "Indirect Taxation in Developing Countries: A General Equilibrium Approach," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 34(2), pages 333-373, June.
  11. McLure, Charles Jr., 1975. "General equilibrium incidence analysis : The Harberger model after ten years," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 4(2), pages 125-161, February.
  12. Younger, Stephen D, et al, 1999. "Tax Incidence in Madagascar: An Analysis Using Household Data," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, World Bank Group, vol. 13(2), pages 303-31, May.
  13. Devarajan, Shantayanan & Fullerton, Don & Musgrave, Richard A., 1980. "Estimating the distribution of tax burdens : A comparison of different approaches," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 13(2), pages 155-182, April.
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Cited by:
  1. Mohsin, Asma & Zaman, Khalid, 2012. "Distributional effects of rising food prices in Pakistan: Evidence from HIES 2001–02 and 2005–06 survey," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 29(5), pages 1986-1995.

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