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Sympathy and Punishment: Evolution of Cooperation in Public Goods Game

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Author Info

  • Hang Ye

    ()

  • Fei Tan

    ()

  • Mei Ding

    ()

  • Yongmin Jia

    ()

  • Yefeng Chen

    ()

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Abstract

An important way to maintain human cooperation is punishing defection. However, since punishment is costly, how can it arise and evolve given that individuals who contribute but do not punish fare better than the punishers? This leads to a violation of causality, since the evolution of punishment is prior to the one of cooperation behaviour in evolutionary dynamics. Our public goods game computer simulations based on generalized Moran Process, show that, if there exists a \'behaviour-based sympathy\' that compensates those who punish at a personal cost, the way for the emergence and establishment of punishing behaviour is paved. In this way, the causality violation dissipates. Among humans sympathy can be expressed in many ways such as care, praise, solace, ethical support, admiration, and sometimes even adoration; in our computer simulations, we use a small amount of transfer payment to express \'behaviour-based sympathy\'. Our conclusions indicate that, there exists co-evolution of sympathy, punishment and cooperation. According to classical philosophy literature, sympathy is a key factor in morality and justice is embodied by punishment; in modern societies, both the moral norms and the judicial system, the representations of sympathy and punishment, play an essential role in stable social cooperation.

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File URL: http://jasss.soc.surrey.ac.uk/14/4/20/20.pdf
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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation in its journal Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation.

Volume (Year): 14 (2011)
Issue (Month): 4 ()
Pages: 20

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Handle: RePEc:jas:jasssj:2010-88-2

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Related research

Keywords: Public Goods Game; Cooperation; Social Dilemma; Co-Evolution; Sympathy; Punishment;

References

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  1. Andreoni, James, 1988. "Why free ride? : Strategies and learning in public goods experiments," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 37(3), pages 291-304, December.
  2. Mark Isaac, R. & McCue, Kenneth F. & Plott, Charles R., 1985. "Public goods provision in an experimental environment," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 26(1), pages 51-74, February.
  3. Andereoni, J., 1988. "Why Free Ride? Strategies And Learning In Public Goods Experiments," Working papers 375, Wisconsin Madison - Social Systems.
  4. Sally, David, 2001. "On sympathy and games," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 44(1), pages 1-30, January.
  5. John C. Harsanyi, 1955. "Cardinal Welfare, Individualistic Ethics, and Interpersonal Comparisons of Utility," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 63, pages 309.
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Cited by:
  1. M. D. Farjam & M. Faillo & W.F.G. Haselager & I.G. Sprinkhuizen-Kuyper, 2013. "Punishment Mechanisms and their Effect on Cooperation - A Simulation Study," CEEL Working Papers 1302, Cognitive and Experimental Economics Laboratory, Department of Economics, University of Trento, Italia.

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