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La América Latina y la economía mundial en el largo siglo XX

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  • Ocampo, José Antonio

    (Organización de las Naciones Unidas (ONU))

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    Abstract

    This paper draws the broad trends of Latin American economic development and its relations to the world economy since 1870. It presents the raw materials dependence of the region, its industrialization strategy, the incidence of unstable capital flows, as well as of macroeconomic policy, as the fundamental factors that helped to shape the central features of Latin American economic development during this “long twentieth century”. It also explores the role of mayor international shocks vs. that of ideas and policies in the two major transitions experienced during the century. The analysis is divided in three broad phases: the “export age”, from the 1870s/1880s to the 1920s; the phase of “state-led industrialization”, between the 1930s and the 1970s; and the most recent period, which is termed the “neo-liberal order”.// Este ensayo presenta las principales tendencias del desarrollo latinoamericano y sus relaciones con la economía mundial desde 1870. Considera la dependencia regional de las materias primas, su estrategia de industrialización, la incidencia de la inestabilidad de los flujos de capital y la política macroeconómica como los factores fundamentales que ayudaron a moldear los rasgos centrales del desarrollo de la América Latina durante ese “largo siglo XX”. Explora también el papel que tuvieron los choques internacionales frente al papel de las ideas y las políticas en las dos transiciones principales que se experimentaron durante el siglo. El análisis se divide en tres fases: la “era de las exportaciones”, entre los decenios de 1870-1880 y los años 1920; la fase de “industrialización dirigida por el Estado” entre los decenios de 1930 y 1970, y el periodo más reciente, al que se denomina como “el orden neoliberal”.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Fondo de Cultura Económica in its journal El Trimestre Económico.

    Volume (Year): LXXI (4) (2004)
    Issue (Month): 284 (octubre-diciembre)
    Pages: 725-786

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    Handle: RePEc:elt:journl:v:71:y:2004:i:284:p:725-786

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    Related research

    Keywords: desarrollo; crecimiento; América Latina; siglo XX; política macroeconómica; industrialización; materias primas;

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    Cited by:
    1. Sergio Tezanos Vázquez & Rogelio Madrueño Aguilar & Marta Guijarro Garví, 2009. "Impacto de la ayuda sobre el crecimiento económico. El caso de América Latina y el Caribe," Documentos de trabajo sobre cooperación y desarrollo 200904, Cátedra de Cooperación Internacional y con Iberoamérica (COIBA), Universidad de Cantabria.
    2. Leonardo Villar & Pilar Esguerra, . "Comercio Exterior Colombiano En El Siglo Xx," Borradores de Economia 358, Banco de la Republica de Colombia.

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