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Crowding and public transport: A review of willingness to pay evidence and its relevance in project appraisal

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  • Li, Zheng
  • Hensher, David A.
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    Abstract

    This paper reviews public transport crowding valuation research, using a number of primary studies conducted in the UK, USA, Australia and Israel. We identify three measures used to value crowding (a time multiplier, a monetary value per time unit and a monetary value per trip), and associated ways of representing crowding in stated preference experiments. Although a number of different types of crowding in terms of location are identified, namely in-vehicle, access-way, entrance and platform/station, the majority of reviewed studies investigate only in-vehicle crowding. Despite the different characteristics of the reviewed studies, they all report that crowding would increase the value of travel time savings, which can be viewed as an additional component of generalised time. This paper also comments on the role that the WTP for crowding reduction can play in project appraisal, and suggests some important avenues for future public transport crowding valuation research.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Transport Policy.

    Volume (Year): 18 (2011)
    Issue (Month): 6 (November)
    Pages: 880-887

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    Handle: RePEc:eee:trapol:v:18:y:2011:i:6:p:880-887

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    Related research

    Keywords: Public transport Crowding Value of crowding Value of generalised time Stated preference experiment;

    References

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    1. Cox, Tom & Houdmont, Jonathan & Griffiths, Amanda, 2006. "Rail passenger crowding, stress, health and safety in Britain," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 40(3), pages 244-258, March.
    2. Li, Zheng & Hensher, David A. & Rose, John M., 2010. "Willingness to pay for travel time reliability in passenger transport: A review and some new empirical evidence," Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 46(3), pages 384-403, May.
    3. Charles A. Holt & Susan K. Laury, 2002. "Risk Aversion and Incentive Effects," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 92(5), pages 1644-1655, December.
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    Cited by:
    1. van der Weijde, Adriaan Hendrik & Verhoef, Erik T. & van den Berg, Vincent A.C., 2013. "Competition in multi-modal transport networks: A dynamic approach," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 53(C), pages 31-44.
    2. Vincent van den Berg & Erik T. Verhoef, 2011. "Congesting Pricing in a Road and Rail Network with Heterogeneous Values of Time and Schedule Delay," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers, Tinbergen Institute 11-059/3, Tinbergen Institute, revised 24 May 2012.
    3. Luke Haywood & Martin Koning, 2013. "Estimating Crowding Costs in Public Transport," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research 1293, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
    4. Basu, Debasis & Hunt, John Douglas, 2012. "Valuing of attributes influencing the attractiveness of suburban train service in Mumbai city: A stated preference approach," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 46(9), pages 1465-1476.
    5. Ho, Chinh Q. & Mulley, Corinne, 2013. "Multiple purposes at single destination: A key to a better understanding of the relationship between tour complexity and mode choice," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 49(C), pages 206-219.
    6. Zhang, Zheng & Fujii, Hidemichi & Managi, Shunsuke, 2014. "How does Commuting Behavior Change Due to Incentives? An Empirical Study of the Beijing Subway System," MPRA Paper 54691, University Library of Munich, Germany.

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