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Existence of self-financing and Pareto-improving congestion pricing: Impact of value of time distribution

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  • Nie, Yu (Marco)
  • Liu, Yang
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    Abstract

    This paper considers a static congestion pricing model in which travelers select a mode from either, driving on highway or taking public transit, to minimize a combination of travel time, operating cost and toll. The focus is to examine how travelers' value of time (VOT), which is continuously distributed in a population, affects the existence of a pricing-refunding scheme that is both self-financing (i.e. requiring no external subsidy) and Pareto-improving (i.e. reducing system travel time while making nobody worse off). A condition that insures the existence of a self-financing and Pareto-improving (SFPI) toll scheme is derived. Our derivation reveals that the toll authority can select a proper SFPI scheme to distribute the benefits from congestion pricing through a credit-based pricing scheme. Under mild assumptions, we prove that an SFPI toll always exists for concave VOT functions, of which the linear function corresponding to the uniform distribution is a special case. Existence conditions are also established for a class of rational functions. These results can be used to analyze more realistic VOT distributions such as log-normal distribution. A useful implication of our analysis is that the existence of an SFPI scheme is not guaranteed for general functional forms. Thus, external subsidies may be required to ensure Pareto-improving, even if policy-makers are willing to return all toll revenues to road users.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice.

    Volume (Year): 44 (2010)
    Issue (Month): 1 (January)
    Pages: 39-51

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    Handle: RePEc:eee:transa:v:44:y:2010:i:1:p:39-51

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    Related research

    Keywords: Value of time Self-financing Pareto-improving Congestion pricing Log-normal;

    References

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    1. Nakamura, Katsuhiko & Kockelman, Kara Maria, 2002. "Congestion pricing and roadspace rationing: an application to the San Francisco Bay Bridge corridor," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 36(5), pages 403-417, June.
    2. Small, Kenneth A., 2001. "Using the Revenues from Congestion Pricing," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt7170x9b0, University of California Transportation Center.
    3. Eliasson, Jonas & Mattsson, Lars-Göran, 2006. "Equity effects of congestion pricing: Quantitative methodology and a case study for Stockholm," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 40(7), pages 602-620, August.
    4. Small, Kenneth A. & Gomez-Ilbanez, Jose A., 1998. "Road Pricing for Congestion Management: The Transition from Theory to Policy," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt8kk909p1, University of California Transportation Center.
    5. Kockelman, Kara M. & Kalmanje, Sukumar, 2005. "Credit-based congestion pricing: a policy proposal and the public's response," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 39(7-9), pages 671-690.
    6. Ben-Akiva, M. & Bolduc, D. & Bradley, M., 1993. "Estimation of Travel Choice Models with Randomly Distributed Values of Time," Papers 9303, Laval - Recherche en Energie.
    7. Eliasson, Jonas & Hultkrantz, Lars & Nerhagen, Lena & Rosqvist, Lena Smidfelt, 2009. "The Stockholm congestion - charging trial 2006: Overview of effects," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 43(3), pages 240-250, March.
    8. Adler, Jeffrey L. & Cetin, Mecit, 2001. "A direct redistribution model of congestion pricing," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 35(5), pages 447-460, June.
    9. Jonas Eliasson, 2001. "Road pricing with limited information and heterogeneous users: A successful case," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer, vol. 35(4), pages 595-604.
    10. Vickrey, William S, 1969. "Congestion Theory and Transport Investment," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 59(2), pages 251-60, May.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:
    1. Basso, Leonardo J. & Jara-Díaz, Sergio R., 2012. "Integrating congestion pricing, transit subsidies and mode choice," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 46(6), pages 890-900.
    2. Chen, Linxi & Yang, Hai, 2012. "Managing congestion and emissions in road networks with tolls and rebates," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 46(8), pages 933-948.
    3. Hensher, David A. & Bliemer, Michiel C.J., 2014. "What type of road pricing scheme might appeal to politicians? Viewpoints on the challenge in gaining the citizen and public servant vote by staging reform," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 61(C), pages 227-237.
    4. Tan, Zhijia & Yang, Hai, 2012. "The impact of user heterogeneity on road franchising," Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, Elsevier, vol. 48(5), pages 958-975.
    5. Tian, Li-Jun & Yang, Hai & Huang, Hai-Jun, 2013. "Tradable credit schemes for managing bottleneck congestion and modal split with heterogeneous users," Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, Elsevier, vol. 54(C), pages 1-13.
    6. Wu, Di & Yin, Yafeng & Lawphongpanich, Siriphong & Yang, Hai, 2012. "Design of more equitable congestion pricing and tradable credit schemes for multimodal transportation networks," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 46(9), pages 1273-1287.
    7. Yang, Hai & Wang, Xiaolei, 2011. "Managing network mobility with tradable credits," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 45(3), pages 580-594, March.
    8. Meng, Qiang & Liu, Zhiyuan & Wang, Shuaian, 2012. "Optimal distance tolls under congestion pricing and continuously distributed value of time," Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, Elsevier, vol. 48(5), pages 937-957.
    9. CNATOS-SANCHEZ, Pedro & MONER-COLONQUES, Rafael & SEMPERE-MONERRIS, José J. & ALVAREZ-SANJAIME, Oscar, . "Viability of new road infrastructure with heterogeneous users," CORE Discussion Papers RP -2429, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
    10. Basso, Leonardo J. & Guevara, Cristián Angelo & Gschwender, Antonio & Fuster, Marcelo, 2011. "Congestion pricing, transit subsidies and dedicated bus lanes: Efficient and practical solutions to congestion," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 18(5), pages 676-684, September.
    11. Nie, Yu (Marco) & Yin, Yafeng, 2013. "Managing rush hour travel choices with tradable credit scheme," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 50(C), pages 1-19.
    12. Liu, Yang & Nie, Yu (Marco), 2011. "Morning commute problem considering route choice, user heterogeneity and alternative system optima," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 45(4), pages 619-642.

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