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The choice of market entry mode: Greenfield investment, M&A and joint venture

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  • Raff, Horst
  • Ryan, Michael
  • Stähler, Frank

Abstract

Multinationals may enter a host market by different modes of foreign direct investment (FDI). This paper examines the choice of FDI mode, and shows that the profitability of greenfield investment influences this choice not only directly, but also indirectly since it determines the outside option of potential acquisition targets and joint venture partners. In particular, even if greenfield investment is a viable option, the multinational may prefer a joint venture to M&A, and M&A to greenfield investment, provided that M&A and joint venture both involve sufficiently low fixed costs. The reason is that the profitability of greenfield investment both reduces the acquisition price in the case of M&A, and gives local firms an incentive to agree to a joint venture.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Elsevier in its journal International Review of Economics & Finance.

Volume (Year): 18 (2009)
Issue (Month): 1 (January)
Pages: 3-10

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Handle: RePEc:eee:reveco:v:18:y:2009:i:1:p:3-10

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Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/inca/620165

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Keywords: F12 F23 Foreign direct investment Multinational firms Merger and acquisition Joint venture Greenfield investment;

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References

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  1. Raff, Horst & Ryan, Michael & Stähler, Frank, 2005. "Asset Ownership and Foreign-Market Entry," Economics Working Papers 2006,01, Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel, Department of Economics.
  2. Markusen, James R., 2002. "Multinational Firms and the Theory of International Trade," MPRA Paper 8380, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  3. d'Aspremont, Claude & Jacquemin, Alexis, 1988. "Cooperative and Noncooperative R&D in Duopoly with Spillovers," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 78(5), pages 1133-37, December.
  4. Bruce A. Blonigen & Ronald B. Davies & Keith Head, 2002. "Estimating The Knowledge-Capital Model of the Multinational Enterprise: Comment," University of Oregon Economics Department Working Papers 2002-13, University of Oregon Economics Department, revised 01 Mar 2002.
  5. David L. Carr & James R. Markusen & Keith E. Maskus, 2001. "Estimating the Knowledge-Capital Model of the Multinational Enterprise," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 91(3), pages 693-708, June.
  6. Yeaple, Stephen & Helpman, Elhanan & Melitz, Marc, 2004. "Export versus FDI with Heterogeneous Firms," Scholarly Articles 3229098, Harvard University Department of Economics.
  7. Head, Keith & Ries, John, 2003. "Heterogeneity and the FDI versus export decision of Japanese manufacturers," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 17(4), pages 448-467, December.
  8. Bjorvatn, Kjetil, 2004. "Economic integration and the profitability of cross-border mergers and acquisitions," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 48(6), pages 1211-1226, December.
  9. Nocke, Volker & Yeaple, Stephen, 2007. "Cross-border mergers and acquisitions vs. greenfield foreign direct investment: The role of firm heterogeneity," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 72(2), pages 336-365, July.
  10. Horn, Henrik & Persson, Lars, 1999. "The Equilibrium Ownership of an International Oligopoly," Working Paper Series 515, Research Institute of Industrial Economics.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Beladi, Hamid & Chakrabarti, Avik & Marjit, Sugata, 2010. "Sequential spatial competition in vertically related industries with different product varieties," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 106(2), pages 112-114, February.
  2. Quan Hoang Vuong & Tran Tri Dung & Thi Chau Ha NguyenN, 2009. "Mergers and Acquisitions in Vietnam’s Emerging Market Economy, 1990-2009," Working Papers CEB 09-045.RS, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
  3. Beladi, Hamid & Chakrabarti, Avik & Marjit, Sugata, 2010. "Cross-border Merger, Vertical Structure, and Spatial Competition," MPRA Paper 24474, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  4. repec:tep:teppwp:wp1206 is not listed on IDEAS
  5. Federico J. Díez & Alan C. Spearot, 2012. "Core competencies, matching, and the structure of foreign direct investment: an update," Working Papers 12-8, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston.
  6. Co, Catherine Yap, 2010. "Intra- and inter-firm US trade," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 19(2), pages 260-277, April.
  7. Lommerud, Kjell Erik & Meland, Frode & Straume, Odd Rune, 2008. "Mergers and capital flight in unionised oligopolies: Is there scope for a 'national champion' policy?," Working Papers in Economics 02/08, University of Bergen, Department of Economics.
  8. Kai Zhao, 2011. "Entry mode choice and target firm selection: private and collective incentive analysis," Working Papers halshs-00856139, HAL.
  9. Jean J. GABSZEWICZ & Didier, LAUSSEL & Ornella, TAROLLA, 2008. "To acquire or to compete ? An entry dilemna," Discussion Papers (ECON - Département des Sciences Economiques) 2008019, Université catholique de Louvain, Département des Sciences Economiques.
  10. Kai Zhao, 2012. "Entry mode choice and target firm selection: private and collective incentive analysis," TEPP Working Paper 2012-06, TEPP.
  11. Caterina Giannetti & Nicola Jentzsch & Giancarlo Spagnolo, 2010. "Information Sharing and Cross-border Entry in European Banking," CEIS Research Paper 178, Tor Vergata University, CEIS, revised 21 Dec 2010.
  12. Federico J. Díez & Alan C. Spearot, 2011. "Core competencies and the structure of foreign direct investment," Working Papers 11-13, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston.
  13. Beladi, Hamid & Chakrabarti, Avik & Marjit, Sugata, 2014. "A public firm in a model of spatial duopoly with price discrimination," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 123(1), pages 79-81.
  14. Marlene Grande & Aurora A. C. Teixeira, 2011. "Linking entry mode choices of MNCs with countries’ corruption. A review," OBEGEF Working Papers 008, OBEGEF - Observatório de Economia e Gestão de Fraude & OBEGEF Working Papers on Fraud and Corruption.
  15. Shafik Hebous & Martin Ruf & Alfons Weichenrieder, 2010. "The Effects of Taxation on the Location Decision of Multinational Firms: M&A vs. Greenfield Investments," CESifo Working Paper Series 3076, CESifo Group Munich.

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