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The choice of market entry mode: Greenfield investment, M&A and joint venture

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  • Raff, Horst
  • Ryan, Michael
  • Stähler, Frank

Abstract

Multinationals may enter a host market by different modes of foreign direct investment (FDI). This paper examines the choice of FDI mode, and shows that the profitability of greenfield investment influences this choice not only directly, but also indirectly since it determines the outside option of potential acquisition targets and joint venture partners. In particular, even if greenfield investment is a viable option, the multinational may prefer a joint venture to M&A, and M&A to greenfield investment, provided that M&A and joint venture both involve sufficiently low fixed costs. The reason is that the profitability of greenfield investment both reduces the acquisition price in the case of M&A, and gives local firms an incentive to agree to a joint venture.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Elsevier in its journal International Review of Economics & Finance.

Volume (Year): 18 (2009)
Issue (Month): 1 (January)
Pages: 3-10

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Handle: RePEc:eee:reveco:v:18:y:2009:i:1:p:3-10

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Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/inca/620165

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Keywords: F12 F23 Foreign direct investment Multinational firms Merger and acquisition Joint venture Greenfield investment;

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References

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  1. Markusen, James R., 2002. "Multinational Firms and the Theory of International Trade," MPRA Paper 8380, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  2. Horn, Henrik & Persson, Lars, 1999. "The Equilibrium Ownership of an International Oligopoly," CEPR Discussion Papers 2302, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  3. Horst Raff & Michael Ryan & Frank Stähler, 2006. "Asset Ownership and Foreign-Market Entry," CESifo Working Paper Series 1676, CESifo Group Munich.
  4. Yeaple, Stephen & Helpman, Elhanan & Melitz, Marc, 2004. "Export versus FDI with Heterogeneous Firms," Scholarly Articles 3229098, Harvard University Department of Economics.
  5. Bruce A. Blonigen & Ronald B. Davies & Keith Head, 2003. "Estimating the Knowledge-Capital Model of the Multinational Enterprise: Comment," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 93(3), pages 980-994, June.
  6. d'ASPREMONT, Claude & JACQUEMIN, Alexis, . "Cooperative and noncooperative R&D in duopoly with spillovers," CORE Discussion Papers RP -823, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
  7. Keith Head & John Ries, 2003. "Heterogeneity and the FDI versus Export Decision of Japanese Manufacturers," NBER Working Papers 10052, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  8. Bjorvatn, Kjetil, 2004. "Economic integration and the profitability of cross-border mergers and acquisitions," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 48(6), pages 1211-1226, December.
  9. David L. Carr & James R. Markusen & Keith E. Maskus, 1998. "Estimating the Knowledge-Capital Model of the Multinational Enterprise," NBER Working Papers 6773, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  10. Nocke, Volker & Yeaple, Stephen, 2007. "Cross-border mergers and acquisitions vs. greenfield foreign direct investment: The role of firm heterogeneity," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 72(2), pages 336-365, July.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. GABSZEWICZ, Jean & LAUSSEL, Didier & TAROLA, Ornella, 2008. "To acquire, or to compete? An entry dilemna," CORE Discussion Papers 2008027, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
  2. Giannetti, Caterina & Jentzsch, Nicola & Spagnolo, Giancarlo, 2010. "Information Sharing and Cross-Border Entry in European Banking," ECRI Papers 2990, Centre for European Policy Studies.
  3. Lommerud, Kjell Erik & Meland, Frode & Straume, Odd Rune, 2008. "Mergers and capital flight in unionised oligopolies: Is there scope for a 'national champion' policy?," Working Papers in Economics 02/08, University of Bergen, Department of Economics.
  4. Beladi, Hamid & Chakrabarti, Avik & Marjit, Sugata, 2009. "Sequential Spatial Competition in Vertically Related industries with Different Product Varieties," MPRA Paper 19278, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  5. Co, Catherine Yap, 2010. "Intra- and inter-firm US trade," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 19(2), pages 260-277, April.
  6. Beladi, Hamid & Chakrabarti, Avik & Marjit, Sugata, 2010. "Cross-border merger, vertical structure, and spatial competition," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 109(2), pages 112-114, November.
  7. Kai Zhao, 2012. "Entry mode choice and target firm selection: private and collective incentive analysis," TEPP Working Paper 2012-06, TEPP.
  8. Beladi, Hamid & Chakrabarti, Avik & Marjit, Sugata, 2014. "A public firm in a model of spatial duopoly with price discrimination," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 123(1), pages 79-81.
  9. Shafik Hebous & Martin Ruf & Alfons Weichenrieder, 2010. "The Effects of Taxation on the Location Decision of Multinational Firms: M&A vs. Greenfield Investments," CESifo Working Paper Series 3076, CESifo Group Munich.
  10. Marlene Grande & Aurora A. C. Teixeira, 2011. "Linking entry mode choices of MNCs with countries’ corruption. A review," OBEGEF Working Papers 008, OBEGEF - Observatório de Economia e Gestão de Fraude & OBEGEF Working Papers on Fraud and Corruption.
  11. Kai Zhao, 2011. "Entry mode choice and target firm selection: private and collective incentive analysis," Working Papers halshs-00856139, HAL.
  12. Federico J. Díez & Alan C. Spearot, 2012. "Core competencies, matching, and the structure of foreign direct investment: an update," Working Papers 12-8, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston.
  13. Federico J. Díez & Alan C. Spearot, 2011. "Core competencies and the structure of foreign direct investment," Working Papers 11-13, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston.
  14. Quan Hoang Vuong & Tran Tri Dung & Thi Chau Ha NguyenN, 2009. "Mergers and Acquisitions in Vietnam’s Emerging Market Economy, 1990-2009," Working Papers CEB 09-045.RS, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
  15. repec:tep:teppwp:wp1206 is not listed on IDEAS

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