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Measuring the knowledge base of regional innovation systems in Germany in terms of a Triple Helix dynamics

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  • Leydesdorff, Loet
  • Fritsch, Michael

Abstract

While a market economy seeks equilibrium, a knowledge-based economy may upset this tendency towards stabilization by adding the feedback of globalization. The interaction among the three subdynamics of economic exchange, technological innovation, and institutional control can be captured with a generalized Triple Helix model. We propose to use the mutual information as an indicator of integration among the three subdynamics at the systems level. This probabilistic entropy can be positive or negative. On the basis of data at the district level in Germany the conclusions of a previous study about the Netherlands are tested: medium-tech manufacturing is the main driver of a knowledge-based configuration in a regional economy, while knowledge-intensive services tend to uncouple the economy from the regional configuration. At the level of regions (NUTS-2) the knowledge-based economy is no longer structured by the previous East-West divide of the country, while this divide has remained the main structure at the level of the states (NUTS-1) which constitute the Federal Republic. -- Während eine Marktwirtschaft nach Gleichgewicht strebt, kann diese Stabilisierungs-tendenz in einer Wissensgesellschaft durch einen zusätzlichen Feedback-Effekt der Globalisierung gestört werden. Das Zusammenspiel der drei Teildynamiken ökonomi-scher Austausch, technologische Innovation und institutionelle Kontrolle kann mit ei-nem allgemeinen Triple Helix-Model erfasst werden. Wir nutzen die gegenseitigen Informationsflüsse zwischen diesen drei Teildynamiken als einen Indikator für die systemische Integration dieser drei Bereiche. Dies probabilistische Entropy kann positiv oder negativ sein. Wir untersuchen, ob Ergebnisse einer früheren, für die Niederlande durchgeführten Studie auch auf Deutschland zutreffen. Wie in den Niederlanden erweist sich auch in Deutschland die medium-tech Industrie als wesentliche Triebkraft der regionalen Wissensbasis während die wissensintensiven Dienstlei

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Research Policy.

Volume (Year): 35 (2006)
Issue (Month): 10 (December)
Pages: 1538-1553

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Handle: RePEc:eee:respol:v:35:y:2006:i:10:p:1538-1553

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Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/respol

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References

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  1. Etzkowitz, Henry & Leydesdorff, Loet, 2000. "The dynamics of innovation: from National Systems and "Mode 2" to a Triple Helix of university-industry-government relations," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 29(2), pages 109-123, February.
  2. Abernathy, William J. & Clark, Kim B., 1985. "Innovation: Mapping the winds of creative destruction," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 14(1), pages 3-22, February.
  3. Rolf Sternberg & Christine Tamasy, 1999. "Munich as Germany's No. 1 High Technology Region: Empirical Evidence, Theoretical Explanations and the Role of Small Firm/Large Firm Relationships," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 33(4), pages 367-377.
  4. Dominique Foray, 2006. "The Economics of Knowledge," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262562235, January.
  5. Fritsch, Michael & Stephan, Andreas, 2005. "Regionalization of innovation policy--Introduction to the special issue," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(8), pages 1123-1127, October.
  6. Michael Fritsch, 2004. "Cooperation and the efficiency of regional R&D activities," Cambridge Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 28(6), pages 829-846, November.
  7. William McGill, 1954. "Multivariate information transmission," Psychometrika, Springer, vol. 19(2), pages 97-116, June.
  8. Philip Cooke & Loet Leydesdorff, 2006. "Regional Development in the Knowledge-Based Economy: The Construction of Advantage," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 31(1), pages 5-15, 01.
  9. Etzkowitz, Henry & Webster, Andrew & Gebhardt, Christiane & Terra, Branca Regina Cantisano, 2000. "The future of the university and the university of the future: evolution of ivory tower to entrepreneurial paradigm," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 29(2), pages 313-330, February.
  10. Fritsch, Michael & Slavtchev, Viktor, 2006. "Measuring the efficiency of regional innovation systems: an empirical assessment," Freiberg Working Papers 2006,08, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration.
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Cited by:
  1. Loet Leydesdorff, 2012. "The Triple Helix, Quadruple Helix, …, and an N-Tuple of Helices: Explanatory Models for Analyzing the Knowledge-Based Economy?," Journal of the Knowledge Economy, Springer, vol. 3(1), pages 25-35, March.
  2. Michael Fritsch & Viktor Slavtchev, 2010. "How does industry specialization affect the efficiency of regional innovation systems?," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer, vol. 45(1), pages 87-108, August.
  3. Martina Kauffeld-Monz, 2005. "Knowledge spillovers within regional networks of innovation and the contribution made by public research," ERSA conference papers ersa05p440, European Regional Science Association.
  4. Porfírio, José & Jacquinet, Marc & Carrilho, Tiago, 2009. "The Concept of Agricultural District and the Question of Rural Development," Spatial and Organizational Dynamics Discussion Papers 2009-3, CIEO-Research Centre for Spatial and Organizational Dynamics, University of Algarve.
  5. Park, Han Woo & Leydesdorff, Loet, 2010. "Longitudinal trends in networks of university-industry-government relations in South Korea: The role of programmatic incentives," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(5), pages 640-649, June.
  6. Michael Fritsch & Viktor Slavtchev, 2007. "What determines the efficiency of regional innovation systems?," Jena Economic Research Papers 2007-006, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Max-Planck-Institute of Economics.
  7. Rune Fitjar & Andrés Rodríguez-Pose, 2013. "The geographical dimension of innovation collaboration: Collaboration and innovation in Norway," ERSA conference papers ersa13p878, European Regional Science Association.

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