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Loan commitments and optimal monetary policy

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  • Woodford, Michael

Abstract

With loan commitments negotiated in advance, the use of tight money to restrain nominal spending has asymmetric effects upon different categories of borrowers. This can reduce efficiency, even though aggregate demand is stabilized. This is illustrated in the context of an equilibrium model of financial intermediation with loan commitments, where monetary policy is characterized by a supply curve for reserves on the part of the central bank in an inter-bank market. If demand uncertainty relates primarily to the intensity of demand by each borrower with no difference in the degree of cyclicality of individual borrowers' demands, an inelastic supply of reserves by the central bank is optimal, because it stabilizes aggregate demand and as a result increases average capacity utilization. But if demand uncertainty relates primarily to the number of borrowers rather than to each one's demand for credit, an interest-rate smoothing policy is optimal, because it eliminates inefficient rationing of credit in high-demand states.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Journal of Monetary Economics.

Volume (Year): 37 (1996)
Issue (Month): 3 (June)
Pages: 573-605

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Handle: RePEc:eee:moneco:v:37:y:1996:i:3:p:573-605

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Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/inca/505566

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  1. Goodfriend, Marvin, 1991. "Interest rates and the conduct of monetary policy," Carnegie-Rochester Conference Series on Public Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(1), pages 7-30, January.
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  8. Donald P. Morgan, 1992. "Bank loan commitments and the lending view of monetary policy," Research Working Paper 92-09, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City.
  9. Albert M. Wojnilower, 1980. "The Central Role of Credit Crunches in Recent Financial History," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 11(2), pages 277-340.
  10. William Poole, 1970. "Optimal choice of monetary policy instruments in a simple stochastic macro model," Staff Studies 57, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
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  12. Lucas, Robert Jr., 1990. "Liquidity and interest rates," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 50(2), pages 237-264, April.
  13. Fuerst, Timothy S., 1992. "Liquidity, loanable funds, and real activity," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 29(1), pages 3-24, February.
  14. Meltzer, Allan & Goodhart, C.A.E., 2005. "A History Of The Federal Reserve," Macroeconomic Dynamics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 9(02), pages 267-275, April.
  15. Taylor, John B., 1993. "Discretion versus policy rules in practice," Carnegie-Rochester Conference Series on Public Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(1), pages 195-214, December.
  16. Eden, Benjamin, 1994. "The Adjustment of Prices to Monetary Shocks When Trade Is Uncertain and Sequential," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 102(3), pages 493-509, June.
  17. Lucas, Robert Jr., 1972. "Expectations and the neutrality of money," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 4(2), pages 103-124, April.
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Cited by:
  1. Eden, Benjamin, 1993. "Inflation and Price Adjustment: An Analysis of Micro Data," Working Papers 94-13, University of Iowa, Department of Economics, revised 1994.
  2. Marcelle Chauvet & Insu Kim, 2010. "Microfoundations of inflation persistence in the New Keynesian Phillips curve," CQER Working Paper 2010-05, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta.
  3. Smith, R. Todd & van Egteren, Henry, 2005. "Interest rate smoothing and financial stability," Review of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 14(2), pages 147-171.
  4. Bental, Benjamin & Eden, Benjamin, 2002. "Reserve requirements and output fluctuations," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(8), pages 1597-1620, November.
  5. Eyal Baharad & Benjamin Eden, 2003. "Price Rigidity and Price Dispersion: Evidence from Micro Data," Vanderbilt University Department of Economics Working Papers 0321, Vanderbilt University Department of Economics.
  6. Woon Gyu Choi & Yungsan Kim, 2001. "Monetary Policy and Corporate Liquid Asset Demand," IMF Working Papers 01/177, International Monetary Fund.
  7. José Manuel Gutiérrez, 2001. "Money in Consumption Economies," Vienna Economics Papers 0105, University of Vienna, Department of Economics.
  8. Benjamin Eden, 2001. "Inventories and the Business Cycle: Testing a Sequential Trading Model," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 4(3), pages 562-574, July.

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