The fallacy of "only the strong survive": The effects of extrinsic motivation on the persistence decisions for under-performing firms
AbstractUnder-performing firms persist even though existing theoretical perspectives indicate that they should be selected out of the market. Building upon threshold theory [Gimeno, J., Folta, T., Cooper, A., Woo, C., 1997. Survival of the fittest? Entrepreneurial human capital and the persistence of underperforming firms. Administrative Science Quarterly 42, 750-783.] and using Staw's [Staw, B.M., 1981. The escalation of commitment to a course of action. Academy of Management Review 6 (4), 577-587.] theoretical model of commitment to a course of action, we explore and test the factors that lead entrepreneurs to persist with under-performing firms. We found environmental munificence, personal investment, personal options, previous organizational success, and perceived collective efficacy impact the decision to persist with an under-performing firm. In addition, extrinsic motivation moderates those relationships. This research adds to the growing literature on highly persistent, under-performing firms and complements and extends threshold theory.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
Bibliographic InfoArticle provided by Elsevier in its journal Journal of Business Venturing.
Volume (Year): 23 (2008)
Issue (Month): 5 (September)
Contact details of provider:
Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/jbusvent
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Paul Westhead & Deniz Ucbasaran & Mike Wright & Martin Binks, 2005. "Novice, Serial and Portfolio Entrepreneur Behaviour and Contributions," Small Business Economics, Springer, Springer, vol. 25(2), pages 109-132, 09.
- Arjen van Witteloostuijn, 1998. "Bridging Behavioral and Economic Theories of Decline: Organizational Inertia, Strategic Competition, and Chronic Failure," Management Science, INFORMS, INFORMS, vol. 44(4), pages 501-519, April.
- Dodd, Sarah Drakopoulou, 2002. "Metaphors and meaning: A grounded cultural model of us entrepreneurship," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 17(5), pages 519-535, September.
- Baumol, William J, 1990. "Entrepreneurship: Productive, Unproductive, and Destructive," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, University of Chicago Press, vol. 98(5), pages 893-921, October.
- Baden-Fuller, Charles W F, 1989. "Exit from Declining Industries and the Case of Steel Castings," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, Royal Economic Society, vol. 99(398), pages 949-61, December.
- David Ahlstrom & Garry D. Bruton, 2004. "Guest Editors' Introduction to Special Issue. Turnaround in Asia: Laying the Foundation for Understanding this Unique Domain," Asia Pacific Journal of Management, Springer, Springer, vol. 21(1_2), pages 5-24, 03.
- Sandberg, William R. & Hofer, Charles W., 1987. "Improving new venture performance: The role of strategy, industry structure, and the entrepreneur," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 2(1), pages 5-28.
- Amos Tversky & Daniel Kahneman, 1979.
"Prospect Theory: An Analysis of Decision under Risk,"
Levine's Working Paper Archive
7656, David K. Levine.
- Kahneman, Daniel & Tversky, Amos, 1979. "Prospect Theory: An Analysis of Decision under Risk," Econometrica, Econometric Society, Econometric Society, vol. 47(2), pages 263-91, March.
- StewartJr., Wayne H. & Watson, Warren E. & Carland, Joann C. & Carland, James W., 1999. "A proclivity for entrepreneurship: A comparison of entrepreneurs, small business owners, and corporate managers," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 14(2), pages 189-214, March.
- Jensen, Michael C. & Meckling, William H., 1976. "Theory of the firm: Managerial behavior, agency costs and ownership structure," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 3(4), pages 305-360, October.
- Gaglio, Connie Marie & Katz, Jerome A, 2001. " The Psychological Basis of Opportunity Identification: Entrepreneurial Alertness," Small Business Economics, Springer, Springer, vol. 16(2), pages 95-111, March.
- Forbes, Daniel P., 2005. "Are some entrepreneurs more overconfident than others?," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 20(5), pages 623-640, September.
- Busenitz, Lowell W. & Barney, Jay B., 1997. "Differences between entrepreneurs and managers in large organizations: Biases and heuristics in strategic decision-making," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 12(1), pages 9-30, January.
- Smith, Adam, 1776. "An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations," History of Economic Thought Books, McMaster University Archive for the History of Economic Thought, McMaster University Archive for the History of Economic Thought, number smith1776.
- Armen A. Alchian, 1950. "Uncertainty, Evolution, and Economic Theory," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, University of Chicago Press, vol. 58, pages 211.
- Dean A. Shepherd, 1999. "Venture Capitalists' Assessment of New Venture Survival," Management Science, INFORMS, INFORMS, vol. 45(5), pages 621-632, May.
- Cooke, Alan D J & Meyvis, Tom & Schwartz, Alan, 2001. " Avoiding Future Regret in Purchase-Timing Decisions," Journal of Consumer Research, University of Chicago Press, University of Chicago Press, vol. 27(4), pages 447-59, March.
- James G. March, 1978. "Bounded Rationality, Ambiguity, and the Engineering of Choice," Bell Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, The RAND Corporation, vol. 9(2), pages 587-608, Autumn.
- Cardon, Melissa S. & Zietsma, Charlene & Saparito, Patrick & Matherne, Brett P. & Davis, Carolyn, 2005. "A tale of passion: New insights into entrepreneurship from a parenthood metaphor," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 20(1), pages 23-45, January.
- Zacharakis, Andrew L. & Meyer, G. Dale, 1998. "A lack of insight: do venture capitalists really understand their own decision process?," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 13(1), pages 57-76, January.
- Miller, Danny, 1992. "The icarus paradox: How exceptional companies bring about their own downfall," Business Horizons, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 35(1), pages 24-35.
- Coad, Alex & Frankish, Julian & Roberts, Richard G. & Storey, David J., 2013. "Growth paths and survival chances: An application of Gambler's Ruin theory," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 28(5), pages 615-632.
- Astrachan, Joseph H., 2010. "Strategy in family business: Toward a multidimensional research agenda," Journal of Family Business Strategy, Elsevier, vol. 1(1), pages 6-14, March.
- Pieper, Torsten M., 2010. "Non solus: Toward a psychology of family business," Journal of Family Business Strategy, Elsevier, vol. 1(1), pages 26-39, March.
- Diana Hechavarria & Maija Renko & Charles Matthews, 2012. "The nascent entrepreneurship hub: goals, entrepreneurial self-efficacy and start-up outcomes," Small Business Economics, Springer, Springer, vol. 39(3), pages 685-701, October.
- Hanisch, David N. & Rau, Sabine B., 2014. "Application of metric conjoint analysis in family business research," Journal of Family Business Strategy, Elsevier, vol. 5(1), pages 72-84.
- Per Davidsson & Scott Gordon, 2012. "Panel studies of new venture creation: a methods-focused review and suggestions for future research," Small Business Economics, Springer, Springer, vol. 39(4), pages 853-876, November.
- Woods, Jeremy A. & Dalziel, Thomas & Barton, Sidney L., 2012. "Escalation of commitment in private family businesses: The influence of outside board members," Journal of Family Business Strategy, Elsevier, vol. 3(1), pages 18-27.
- Dunkelberg, William & Moore, Carmen & Scott, Jonathan & Stull, William, 2013. "Do entrepreneurial goals matter? Resource allocation in new owner-managed firms," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 28(2), pages 225-240.
- McCann, Brian T. & Folta, Timothy B., 2012. "Entrepreneurial entry thresholds," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 84(3), pages 782-800.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Zhang, Lei).
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.