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Formative versus reflective measurement models: Two applications of formative measurement

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Author Info

  • Coltman, Tim
  • Devinney, Timothy M.
  • Midgley, David F.
  • Venaik, Sunil

Abstract

This paper presents a framework that helps researchers to design and validate both formative and reflective measurement models. The framework draws from the existing literature and includes both theoretical and empirical considerations. Two important examples, one from international business and one from marketing, illustrate the use of the framework. Both examples concern constructs that are fundamental to theory-building in these disciplines, and constructs that most scholars measure reflectively. In contrast, applying the framework suggests that a formative measurement model may be more appropriate. These results reinforce the need for all researchers to justify, both theoretically and empirically, their choice of measurement model. Use of an incorrect measurement model undermines the content validity of constructs, misrepresents the structural relationships between them, and ultimately lowers the usefulness of management theories for business researchers and practitioners. The main contribution of this paper is to question the unthinking assumption of reflective measurement seen in much of the business literature.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Journal of Business Research.

Volume (Year): 61 (2008)
Issue (Month): 12 (December)
Pages: 1250-1262

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Handle: RePEc:eee:jbrese:v:61:y:2008:i:12:p:1250-1262

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Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/jbusres

Related research

Keywords: Formative Reflective International business Integration-responsiveness Marketing Market orientation;

References

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  1. Lee Cronbach, 1951. "Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests," Psychometrika, Springer, vol. 16(3), pages 297-334, September.
  2. Langerak, Fred, 2003. "An Appraisal of Research on the Predictive Power of Market Orientation," European Management Journal, Elsevier, vol. 21(4), pages 447-464, August.
  3. Jarvis, Cheryl Burke & MacKenzie, Scott B & Podsakoff, Philip M, 2003. " A Critical Review of Construct Indicators and Measurement Model Misspecification in Marketing and Consumer Research," Journal of Consumer Research, University of Chicago Press, vol. 30(2), pages 199-218, September.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Anna Lejpras & Andreas Stephan, 2008. "Locational Conditions, Cooperation, and Innovativeness: Evidence from Research and Company Spin-offs," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 804, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
  2. Claver-Cortés, Enrique & Pertusa-Ortega, Eva M. & Molina-Azorín, José F., 2012. "Characteristics of organizational structure relating to hybrid competitive strategy: Implications for performance," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 65(7), pages 993-1002.
  3. Chandler, Gaylen N. & DeTienne, Dawn R. & McKelvie, Alexander & Mumford, Troy V., 2011. "Causation and effectuation processes: A validation study," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 26(3), pages 375-390, May.
  4. Lockström, Martin & Lei, Liu, 2013. "Antecedents to supplier integration in China: A partial least squares analysis," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 141(1), pages 295-306.
  5. Valdivieso Taborga, Carlos Eduardo, 2013. "Comparación de los modelos formativo, reflexivo y de antecedentes de evaluación estudiantil del servicio de docencia || Comparison of Formative, Reflective, and Antecedents Models of Students Evalua," Revista de Métodos Cuantitativos para la Economía y la Empresa = Journal of Quantitative Methods for Economics and Business Administration, Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Department of Quantitative Methods for Economics and Business Administration, vol. 16(1), pages 95-120, December.
  6. Chaparro-Peláez, Julián & Pereira-Rama, Antonio & Pascual-Miguel, Félix José, 2014. "Inter-organizational information systems adoption for service innovation in building sector," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 67(5), pages 673-679.
  7. Haeussler, Carolin, 2011. "Information-sharing in academia and the industry: A comparative study," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 40(1), pages 105-122, February.
  8. Baxter, Roger, 2009. "Reflective and formative metrics of relationship value: A commentary essay," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 62(12), pages 1370-1377, December.
  9. Grichnik, Dietmar & Smeja, Alexander & Welpe, Isabell, 2010. "The importance of being emotional: How do emotions affect entrepreneurial opportunity evaluation and exploitation?," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 76(1), pages 15-29, October.
  10. Ozer, Muammer, 2009. "The roles of product lead-users and product experts in new product evaluation," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(8), pages 1340-1349, October.
  11. Rego, Arménio & Ribeiro, Neuza & Cunha, Miguel Pina e & Jesuino, Jorge Correia, 2011. "How happiness mediates the organizational virtuousness and affective commitment relationship," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 64(5), pages 524-532, May.
  12. Douglas Jondle & Alexandre Ardichvili & James Mitchell, 2014. "Modeling Ethical Business Culture: Development of the Ethical Business Culture Survey and Its Use to Validate the CEBC Model of Ethical Business Culture," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 119(1), pages 29-43, January.
  13. Santos-Vijande, María Leticia & del Río-Lanza, Ana Belén & Suárez-Álvarez, Leticia & Díaz-Martín, Ana María, 2013. "The brand management system and service firm competitiveness," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 66(2), pages 148-157.
  14. Rodgers, Waymond & Guiral, Andrés, 2011. "Potential model misspecification bias: Formative indicators enhancing theory for accounting researchers," The International Journal of Accounting, Elsevier, vol. 46(1), pages 25-50, March.
  15. Sarstedt, Marko & Wilczynski, Petra & Melewar, T.C., 2013. "Measuring reputation in global markets—A comparison of reputation measures’ convergent and criterion validities," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 48(3), pages 329-339.
  16. Elisabetta Segre & Tommaso Rondinella & Massimiliano Mascherini, 2011. "Well-Being in Italian Regions. Measures, Civil Society Consultation and Evidence," Social Indicators Research, Springer, vol. 102(1), pages 47-69, May.
  17. Justina GineikienÄ—, 2013. "Consumer Nostalgia Literature Review And An Alternative Measurement Perspective," Organizations and Markets in Emerging Economies, Faculty of Economics, Vilnius University, vol. 4(2).

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