The causality between energy consumption and economic growth in Turkey
AbstractThis paper applies the causality test to examine the causal relationship between primary energy consumption (EC) and real Gross National Product (GNP) for Turkey during 1970-2006. We employ unit root tests, the augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) and the Philips-Perron (PP), Johansen cointegration test, and Pair-wise Granger causality test to examine relation between EC and GNP. Our empirical results indicate that the two series are found to be non-stationary. However, first differences of these series lead to stationarity. Further, the results indicate that EC and GNP are cointegrated and there is bidirectional causality running from EC to GNP and vice versa. This means that an increase in EC directly affects economic growth and that economic growth also stimulates further EC. This bidirectional causality relationship between EC and GNP determined for Turkey at 1970-2006 period is in accordance with the ones in literature reported for similar countries. Consequently, we conclude that energy is a limiting factor to economic growth in Turkey and, hence, shocks to energy supply will have a negative impact on economic growth.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
Bibliographic InfoArticle provided by Elsevier in its journal Energy Policy.
Volume (Year): 36 (2008)
Issue (Month): 10 (October)
Contact details of provider:
Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/enpol
Energy consumption Economic growth Granger causality;
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Oh, Wankeun & Lee, Kihoon, 2004. "Causal relationship between energy consumption and GDP revisited: the case of Korea 1970-1999," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 26(1), pages 51-59, January.
- Glasure, Yong U., 2002. "Energy and national income in Korea: further evidence on the role of omitted variables," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 24(4), pages 355-365, July.
- Asafu-Adjaye, John, 2000.
"The relationship between energy consumption, energy prices and economic growth: time series evidence from Asian developing countries,"
Elsevier, vol. 22(6), pages 615-625, December.
- Asafu-Adjaye, John, 1999. "The relationship between energy consumption, energy prices and economic growth: Time series evidence from Asian developing countries," 1999 Conference (43th), January 20-22, 1999, Christchurch, New Zealand 123754, Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society.
- Jobert, Thomas & Karanfil, Fatih, 2007. "Sectoral energy consumption by source and economic growth in Turkey," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(11), pages 5447-5456, November.
- Climent, Francisco & Pardo, Angel, 2007. "Decoupling factors on the energy-output linkage: The Spanish case," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(1), pages 522-528, January.
- Yang, Hao-Yen, 2000. "A note on the causal relationship between energy and GDP in Taiwan," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(3), pages 309-317, June.
- Yoo, Seung-Hoon, 2005. "Electricity consumption and economic growth: evidence from Korea," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 33(12), pages 1627-1632, August.
- Soytas, Ugur & Sari, Ramazan, 2003. "Energy consumption and GDP: causality relationship in G-7 countries and emerging markets," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 25(1), pages 33-37, January.
- James G. MacKinnon, 1995.
"Numerical Distribution Functions for Unit Root and Cointegration Tests,"
918, Queen's University, Department of Economics.
- MacKinnon, James G, 1996. "Numerical Distribution Functions for Unit Root and Cointegration Tests," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 11(6), pages 601-18, Nov.-Dec..
- Johansen, Soren, 1988. "Statistical analysis of cointegration vectors," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 12(2-3), pages 231-254.
- Granger, C W J, 1969. "Investigating Causal Relations by Econometric Models and Cross-Spectral Methods," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 37(3), pages 424-38, July.
- Johansen, Soren & Juselius, Katarina, 1990. "Maximum Likelihood Estimation and Inference on Cointegration--With Applications to the Demand for Money," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 52(2), pages 169-210, May.
- Shiu, Alice & Lam, Pun-Lee, 2004. "Electricity consumption and economic growth in China," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 32(1), pages 47-54, January.
- Engle, Robert F & Granger, Clive W J, 1987. "Co-integration and Error Correction: Representation, Estimation, and Testing," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 55(2), pages 251-76, March.
- Türkekul, Berna & UnakItan, Gökhan, 2011. "A co-integration analysis of the price and income elasticities of energy demand in Turkish agriculture," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(5), pages 2416-2423, May.
- Kouakou, Auguste K., 2011. "Economic growth and electricity consumption in Cote d'Ivoire: Evidence from time series analysis," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(6), pages 3638-3644, June.
- Kaplan, Muhittin & Ozturk, Ilhan & Kalyoncu, Huseyin, 2011. "Energy Consumption and Economic Growth in Turkey: Cointegration and Causality Analysis," Journal for Economic Forecasting, Institute for Economic Forecasting, vol. 0(2), pages 31-41, June.
- Özlale, Ümit & Pekkurnaz, Didem, 2010. "Oil prices and current account: A structural analysis for the Turkish economy," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(8), pages 4489-4496, August.
- Omay, Tolga & Hasanov, Mubariz & Ucar, Nuri, 2012.
"Energy consumption and economic growth: evidence from nonlinear panel cointegration and causality tests,"
37653, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Tolga Omay & Mubariz Hasanov & Nuri Uçar, 2012. "Energy Consumption and Economic Growth: Evidence from Nonlinear Panel Cointegration and Causality Tests," Hacettepe University Department of Economics Working Papers 20130, Hacettepe University, Department of Economics.
- Karanfil, Fatih, 2009. "How many times again will we examine the energy-income nexus using a limited range of traditional econometric tools?," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(4), pages 1191-1194, April.
- Magazzino, Cosimo, 2011. "Energy consumption and aggregate income in Italy: cointegration and causality analysis," MPRA Paper 28494, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Shahbaz, Muhammad & Abosedra, Salah & Sbia, Rashid, 2013. "Energy Consumption, Financial Development and Growth: Evidence from Cointegration with unknown Structural breaks in Lebanon," MPRA Paper 46580, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Dilaver, Zafer & Hunt, Lester C., 2011.
"Industrial electricity demand for Turkey: A structural time series analysis,"
Elsevier, vol. 33(3), pages 426-436, May.
- Zafer Dilaver & Lester C Hunt, 2010. "Industrial Electricity Demand for Turkey: A Structural Time Series Analysis," Surrey Energy Economics Centre (SEEC), School of Economics Discussion Papers (SEEDS) 129, Surrey Energy Economics Centre (SEEC), School of Economics, University of Surrey.
- A. Talha Yalta, 2011.
"Analyzing Energy Consumption and GDP Nexus Using Maximum Entropy Bootstrap: The Case of Turkey,"
1103, TOBB University of Economics and Technology, Department of Economics.
- Yalta, A. Talha, 2011. "Analyzing energy consumption and GDP nexus using maximum entropy bootstrap: The case of Turkey," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(3), pages 453-460, May.
- Angeliki N. Menegaki & Serkan Gurluk, 2013. "Greece & Turkey; Assessment and Comparison of Their Renewable Energy Performance," International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, Econjournals, vol. 3(4), pages 367 - 383.
- Menegaki, Angeliki N., 2011. "Growth and renewable energy in Europe: A random effect model with evidence for neutrality hypothesis," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(2), pages 257-263, March.
- Hatemi-J, Abdulnasser & Uddin, Gazi Salah, 2012. "Is the causal nexus of energy utilization and economic growth asymmetric in the US?," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 36(3), pages 461-469.
- Halicioglu, Ferda, 2010. "A dynamic econometric study of income, energy and exports in Turkey," MPRA Paper 29579, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Chang, Ching-Chih & Soruco Carballo, Claudia Fabiola, 2011. "Energy conservation and sustainable economic growth: The case of Latin America and the Caribbean," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(7), pages 4215-4221, July.
- Yuan, Chaoqing & Liu, Sifeng & Fang, Zhigeng & Xie, Naiming, 2010. "The relation between Chinese economic development and energy consumption in the different periods," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(9), pages 5189-5198, September.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Wendy Shamier).
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.