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A class of adaptive importance sampling weighted EM algorithms for efficient and robust posterior and predictive simulation

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  • Hoogerheide, Lennart
  • Opschoor, Anne
  • van Dijk, Herman K.

Abstract

A class of adaptive sampling methods is introduced for efficient posterior and predictive simulation. The proposed methods are robust in the sense that they can handle target distributions that exhibit non-elliptical shapes such as multimodality and skewness. The basic method makes use of sequences of importance weighted Expectation Maximization steps in order to efficiently construct a mixture of Student-t densities that approximates accurately the target distribution–typically a posterior distribution, of which we only require a kernel–in the sense that the Kullback–Leibler divergence between target and mixture is minimized. We label this approach Mixture oftby Importance Sampling weighted Expectation Maximization (MitISEM). The constructed mixture is used as a candidate density for quick and reliable application of either Importance Sampling (IS) or the Metropolis–Hastings (MH) method. We also introduce three extensions of the basic MitISEM approach. First, we propose a method for applying MitISEM in a sequential manner, so that the candidate distribution for posterior simulation is cleverly updated when new data become available. Our results show that the computational effort reduces enormously, while the quality of the approximation remains almost unchanged. This sequential approach can be combined with a tempering approach, which facilitates the simulation from densities with multiple modes that are far apart. Second, we introduce a permutation-augmented MitISEM approach. This is useful for importance or Metropolis–Hastings sampling from posterior distributions in mixture models without the requirement of imposing identification restrictions on the model’s mixture regimes’ parameters. Third, we propose a partial MitISEM approach, which aims at approximating the joint distribution by estimating a product of marginal and conditional distributions. This division can substantially reduce the dimension of the approximation problem, which facilitates the application of adaptive importance sampling for posterior simulation in more complex models with larger numbers of parameters. Our results indicate that the proposed methods can substantially reduce the computational burden in econometric models like DCC or mixture GARCH models and a mixture instrumental variables model.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Journal of Econometrics.

Volume (Year): 171 (2012)
Issue (Month): 2 ()
Pages: 101-120

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Handle: RePEc:eee:econom:v:171:y:2012:i:2:p:101-120

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Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/jeconom

Related research

Keywords: Mixture of Student-t distributions; Importance sampling; Kullback–Leibler divergence; Expectation Maximization; Metropolis–Hastings algorithm; Predictive likelihood; DCC GARCH; Mixture GARCH; Instrumental variables;

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  1. van Dijk, H. K. & Kloek, T., 1980. "Further experience in Bayesian analysis using Monte Carlo integration," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 14(3), pages 307-328, December.
  2. Eklund, Jana & Karlsson, Sune, 2005. "Forecast Combination and Model Averaging using Predictive Measures," Working Paper Series 191, Sveriges Riksbank (Central Bank of Sweden).
  3. Lennart Hoogerheide & Anne Opschoor & Herman K. van Dijk, 2011. "A Class of Adaptive EM-based Importance Sampling Algorithms for Efficient and Robust Posterior and Predictive Simulation," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 11-004/4, Tinbergen Institute.
  4. Nelson, Daniel B, 1991. "Conditional Heteroskedasticity in Asset Returns: A New Approach," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 59(2), pages 347-70, March.
  5. HOOGERHEIDE, Lennart F. & KAASHOEK, Johan F. & van DIJK, Herman K., . "On the shape of posterior densities and credible sets in instrumental variable regression models with reduced rank: an application of flexible sampling methods using neural networks," CORE Discussion Papers RP -1922, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
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  8. Lennart Hoogerheide & Herman K. van Dijk, 2008. "Bayesian Forecasting of Value at Risk and Expected Shortfall using Adaptive Importance Sampling," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 08-092/4, Tinbergen Institute.
  9. Kloek, Tuen & van Dijk, Herman K, 1978. "Bayesian Estimates of Equation System Parameters: An Application of Integration by Monte Carlo," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 46(1), pages 1-19, January.
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  11. HOOGERHEIDE, Lennart F. & VAN DIJK, Herman K. & VAN OEST, Rutger D., 2007. "Simulation based Bayesian econometric inference: principles and some recent computational advances," CORE Discussion Papers 2007015, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
  12. Geweke, John, 1989. "Bayesian Inference in Econometric Models Using Monte Carlo Integration," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 57(6), pages 1317-39, November.
  13. Engle, Robert, 2002. "Dynamic Conditional Correlation: A Simple Class of Multivariate Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity Models," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 20(3), pages 339-50, July.
  14. Nicolas Chopin, 2000. "A Sequential Particle Filter Method for Static Models," Working Papers 2000-45, Centre de Recherche en Economie et Statistique.
  15. Lennart Hoogerheide & Anne Opschoor & Herman K. van Dijk, 2011. "A Class of Adaptive EM-based Importance Sampling Algorithms for Efficient and Robust Posterior and Predictive Simulation," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 11-004/4, Tinbergen Institute.
  16. Frühwirth-Schnatter, Sylvia & Wagner, Helga, 2008. "Marginal likelihoods for non-Gaussian models using auxiliary mixture sampling," Computational Statistics & Data Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 52(10), pages 4608-4624, June.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Nalan Basturk & Lennart Hoogerheide & Anne Opschoor & Herman K. van Dijk, 2012. "The R Package MitISEM: Mixture of Student-t Distributions using Importance Sampling Weighted Expectation Maximization for Efficient and Robust Simulation," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 12-096/III, Tinbergen Institute.
  2. David Ardia & Lennart Hoogerheide, 2013. "GARCH Models for Daily Stock Returns: Impact of Estimation Frequency on Value-at-Risk and Expected Shortfall Forecasts," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 13-047/III, Tinbergen Institute.
  3. Nalan Basturk, 2014. "On the Rise of Bayesian Econometrics after Cowles Foundation Monographs 10, 14," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 14-085/III, Tinbergen Institute.
  4. Arnold Zellner (posthumously) & Tomohiro Ando & Nalan Basturk & Lennart Hoogerheide & Herman K. van Dijk, 2012. "Bayesian Analysis of Instrumental Variable Models: Acceptance-Rejection within Direct Monte Carlo," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 12-098/III, Tinbergen Institute.

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