Antecedent water content effects on runoff and sediment yields from two Coastal Plain Ultisols
AbstractThe highly weathered, low-carbon, intensively cropped, drought-prone Coastal Plain soils of Georgia are susceptible to runoff and soil loss, especially at certain times of the year when soil water contents are elevated. We quantified the effects of antecedent water content (AWC) on runoff (R) and sediment (E) losses from two loamy sands managed under conventional- (CT), strip- (ST), and/or no-till (NT) systems. Two AWC treatments were evaluated: field moist (FM) and pre-wet (PW), created with and without post pesticide application irrigations (~12Â mm of water added with the rainfall simulated over 30Â min) for incorporation. Treatments (5) evaluated were: CTÂ +Â FM, CTÂ +Â PW, STÂ +Â FM, STÂ +Â PW, and NTÂ +Â PW. Field plots, each 2-mÂ xÂ -3Â m, were established on each treatment. Each 6-m2 field plot received simulated rainfall at a variable rainfall intensity (Iv) pattern for 70Â min (site 1) or a constant rainfall intensity (Ic) pattern for 60Â min (site 2; IcÂ =Â 50.8Â mmÂ h-1). Adding ~12Â mm of water as herbicide incorporation increased AWCs of the 0-2 (3-9-fold) and 2-15 (23-117%)Â cm soil depths of PW plots compared to existing field moist soil conditions. Increase in AWC increased R (as much as 60%) and maximum R rates (as much as 62%), and decreased E (at least 59%) and maximum E rates (as much as 2.1-fold) for corresponding tillage treatments. Compared to CT plots, ST and NT plots decreased R (at least 2.6-fold) and maximum R rates (as much as 3-fold), and decreased E (at least 2.7-fold) and maximum E rates (at least 3.2-fold). Runoff curves for pre-wetted CT and ST plots were always higher than corresponding FM curves, whereas E curves for field moist CT and ST plots were always higher than corresponding PW curves. Changes in AWC and tillage affected detachment and transport processes controlling runoff and sediment yields. A more accurate measure of rainfall partitioning and detachment and transport processes affecting R and E losses was obtained when commonly occurring field conditions (increased AWC with irrigation; Iv pattern derived from natural rainfall; commonly used tillage systems) were created and evaluated.
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Bibliographic InfoArticle provided by Elsevier in its journal Agricultural Water Management.
Volume (Year): 98 (2011)
Issue (Month): 8 (May)
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Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/agwat
Erosion Infiltration Strip-tillage No-tillage Rainfall simulation Soil water;
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- Wei, Linhong & Zhang, Bin & Wang, Mingzhu, 2007. "Effects of antecedent soil moisture on runoff and soil erosion in alley cropping systems," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 94(1-3), pages 54-62, December.
- Truman, C.C. & Nuti, R.C., 2009. "Improved water capture and erosion reduction through furrow diking," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 96(7), pages 1071-1077, July.
- Truman, C.C. & Nuti, R.C., 2010. "Furrow diking in conservation tillage," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 97(6), pages 835-840, June.
- Lewan, Elisabet & Kreuger, Jenny & Jarvis, Nicholas, 2009. "Implications of precipitation patterns and antecedent soil water content for leaching of pesticides from arable land," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 96(11), pages 1633-1640, November.
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