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Measuring Global Money Laundering: "The Walker Gravity Model"

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  • Walker John

    (University of Wollongong, Australia Utrecht University School of Economics)

  • Unger Brigitte

    (University of Wollongong, Australia Utrecht University School of Economics)

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    Abstract

    Measuring global money laundering, the proceeds of transnational crime that are pumped through the financial system worldwide, is still in its infancy. Methods such as case studies, proxy variables, or models for measuring the shadow economy all tend to under- or overestimate money laundering. The model presented here is a gravity model which makes it possible to estimate the flows of illicit funds from and to each jurisdiction in the world and worldwide. This “Walker Model” was first developed in 1994, and used and updated recently. We show that it belongs to the group of gravity models which have recently become popular in international trade theory. Using triangulation, we demonstrate that the original Walker Model estimates are compatible with recent findings on money laundering. Once the scale of money laundering is known, its macroeconomic effects and the impact of crime prevention, regulation and law enforcement effects on money laundering and transnational crime can also be measured.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by De Gruyter in its journal Review of Law & Economics.

    Volume (Year): 5 (2009)
    Issue (Month): 2 (December)
    Pages: 821-853

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    Handle: RePEc:bpj:rlecon:v:5:y:2009:i:2:n:2

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    Cited by:
    1. Joras Ferwerda & Mark Kattenberg & Han-Hsin Chang & Brigitte Unger & Loek Groot & Jakob Bikker, 2011. "Gravity Models of Trade-based Money Laundering," DNB Working Papers 318, Netherlands Central Bank, Research Department.
    2. Raffaella Barone & Donato Masciandaro, 2011. "Organized crime, money laundering and legal economy: theory and simulations," European Journal of Law and Economics, Springer, vol. 32(1), pages 115-142, August.
    3. Guerino Ardizzi & Carmelo Petraglia & Massimiliano Piacenza & Friedrich Schneider & Gilberto Turati, 2013. "Money Laundering as a Financial Sector Crime. A New Approach to Measurement, with an Application to Italy," Working papers 018, Department of Economics and Statistics (Dipartimento di Scienze Economico-Sociali e Matematico-Statistiche), University of Torino.
    4. Perez, M. Fabricio & Brada, Josef C. & Drabek, Zdenek, 2012. "Illicit money flows as motives for FDI," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(1), pages 108-126.
    5. Friedrich Schneider & Raul Caruso, 2011. "The (Hidden) Financial Flows of Terrorist and Transnational Crime Organizations: A Literature Review and Some Preliminary Empirical Results," Economics of Security Working Paper Series 52, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
    6. Gerhard Graf, 2011. "Some stylised facts about cash and black economies in Germany," European Journal of Law and Economics, Springer, vol. 32(1), pages 51-67, August.
    7. Friedrich Schneider, 2011. "The Financial Flows of the Transnational Crime: Some Preliminary Empirical Results," Economics of Security Working Paper Series 53, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
    8. Schneider, Friedrich, 2010. "The (Hidden) Financial Flows of Terrorist and Organized Crime Organizations: A Literature Review and Some Preliminary Empirical Results," IZA Discussion Papers 4860, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).

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